A type of nucleic acid involved in protein synthesis that consists of a single strand of nucleotides.
A five carbon sugar molecule that contains an additional hydrogen atom.
The transfer of instructions for making a protein that are transferred from a gene to a mRNA molecule.
The entire process in which proteins are made based on the information found within DNA.
An enzyme that adds and links complementary nucleotides during transcription.
A specific sequence of DNA that acts as the start signal for transcription.
The from of RNA that carries instructions for making a protein from a gene and deliever it to the site of protein synthesis.
The site of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells.
A sequence of three nucleotides on a mRNA molecule that represents a specific amino acid.
An American biochemist who deciphered the first condon in 1961 by making artificial mRNA.
A single strand of RNA that temporarily carries specific amino acids to be linked into proteins.
A sequence of three nucleotides found on tRNA that is complementary to a mRNA triplet.
A from of RNA that are part of the structure of ribosomes.
The portion of protein synthesis that occurs at the ribosomes in which the specified amino acids are linked together at the ribosomes to form a protein chain.
A mRNA codon that signals the beginning of a protein chain.
The type of bond that forms between amino acids to form a protein chain.
One of three codons (UAG, UAA, or UGA) for which there is no tRNA molecule with a complementary triplet and signals the end of protein synthesis.
A disaccharide found in dairy products that consists of glucose and galactose.
The piece of DNA that overlaps the promotor site and acts as an off-on switch.
A group of genes that code for enzymes involved in the same function, their promotor site, and the operator that controls them.
A protein that binds to an operator and physically blocks RNA polymerase from binding to a promotor site thereby not allowing transcription to occur.
Regulatory proteins found in eukaryotes that control gene regulation.
A sequence of DNA that influences transcriptin and is located thousands of nucleotide units away from the promotor.
A long segment of nucleotides that contain no coding information for a protein.
Portions of a gene that are translated into proteins.
Mutations that change one or just a few nucleotides in a gene on a chromosome.
A type of point mutation in which one or more nucleotides is replaced with a different nucleotide.
A type of point mutation in which one or more nucleotides are missing from a gene.
A type of point mutation in which one or more nucleotides are added to a gene.
A type of mutation which causes a gene to be read in teh wrong three nucleotide sequence because the reading pattern has been displaced one or two positions.
Genes that have moved from one chromosome location to another, often seen in Indian corn.
The operon found in bacteria that controls the metabolism of lactose.
A digestive enzyme that breaks down the milk sugar found in dairly products.
The subunits of polypeptide chains and protein molecules.
A type of protein molecule responsible for the transport of oxygen in red blood cells.
A type of protein found in skin, hair, fingernails, and other structural parts.
A type of protein that regulates the metabolism of sugar in the bloodstream.
A type of protein that assist in controlling chemical and metabolic reactions.