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You would probably be LEAST likely to commit the fundamental attribution error in explaining why

you failed a college test.

A dispositional attribution is to ________ as a situational attribution is to ________.

personality traits; assigned roles

A person's behavior is most likely to be consistent with his or her attitudes when

external influences on behavior are minimal.

The set of prescribed behaviors associated with a particular social position is best described as a(n)

role.

Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called

attitudes.

Which of the following would most likely be subject to social facilitation?

running quickly around a track

Based on findings from Milgram's obedience studies, participants would be less likely to follow the experimenter's orders when

they see another subject disobey instructions.

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were LEAST likely to deliver the highest levels of shock when

the "teachers" observed other participants refuse to obey the experimenter's orders.

On which of the following tasks would the presence of observers be LEAST likely to lead to better and faster performance?

solving a crossword puzzle

Which of the following processes most obviously operates in groupthink?

group polarization

Rodents who experienced inescapable shocks were more prone to developing cancer if they had previously been exposed to

carcinogens.

As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ________ nervous system.

sympathetic

Friedman and Rosenman referred to relaxed and easygoing individuals as ________ personalities.

Type B

Chronic anger ________ the risk of heart disease, and chronic depression ________ the risk of heart disease.

increases; increases

Data from European countries indicate that where life satisfaction is high, the incidence of ________ is low.

high blood pressure

You would probably be LEAST likely to commit the fundamental attribution error in explaining why

you failed a college test.

Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called

attitudes.

The fundamental attribution error refers to our tendency to underestimate the impact of ________ and to overestimate the impact of ________ in explaining the behavior of others.

situational influences; personal dispositions

A dispositional attribution is to ________ as a situational attribution is to ________.

personality traits; assigned roles

Observing yourself on a videotape is most likely to increase your tendency to attribute your behavior to

personality traits.

Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates

social facilitation.

In Milgram's experiments, participants were torn between whether they should respond to the pleas of the ______ or the demands of the ______.

"learner"; experimenter

Professors Maksoud, Struthers, and Vasic each tend to think that obtaining a university degree is easier today than it was when they were students. After discussing the matter over coffee, they are even more convinced that obtaining a degree is easier today. This episode provides an example of

group polarization.

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation.

The leading cause of death in North America is

coronary heart disease.

In response to stress, the adrenal glands release

epinephrine.

Physical illnesses, such as hypertension and some headaches, that are not caused by an organic disorder but instead seem linked to stress are referred to as ________ illnesses.

psychophysiological

The component of Type A behavior that is the most predictive of coronary disease is

anger.

One option for dealing with stress, which is more common among women than men, is

the tend-and-befriend response.

The foot-in-the-door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request.

People are especially likely to demonstrate the fundamental attribution error in cultures that value

individualism.

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify our attitudes?

cognitive dissonance theory

Magazine computer ads seldom feature endorsements from Hollywood stars or great athletes. Instead, they offer detailed information for consumers to develop more positive opinions about the company's products. This advertising strategy best illustrates

the central route to persuasion.

Before she gave a class presentation favoring gun control legislation, Wanda opposed it. Her present attitude favoring such legislation can best be explained by

cognitive dissonance theory.

Those who feel socially pressured sometimes assert their freedom by doing the opposite of what is socially expected. This best illustrates

personal control.

After an exciting football game in which the home team loses by one point, angry fans throw bottles and begin to tear up the field. This behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation.

Naseeb disagrees with his classmates on an issue. During a class discussion of the issue, Naseeb is MOST likely to conform to his classmates' opinion if he

believes the rest of the class is unanimous in their position.

Participants in the Milgram obedience studies were ordered to

deliver electric shocks to a learner for giving incorrect answers.

Which of the following conclusions did Milgram derive from his studies of obedience?

Even ordinary people, without any particular hostility, can become agents in a destructive process.

Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

Phase 2

Stress is most likely to speed the progression from HIV to AIDS by

inhibiting the production of lymphocytes.

Rodents who experienced inescapable shocks were more prone to developing cancer if they had previously been exposed to

carcinogens.

Following a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided each other with emotional support. This reaction best illustrates

the tend-and-befriend response.

Which of the following statements concerning Type A and B persons is true?

When stressed, Type A persons redistribute bloodflow to the muscles and away from internal organs.

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