Body Structures and Body Levers and Organ Systems

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homostasis

the maintenance of stable internal conditions

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

integumentry

**The skin and its appendages, including the hair and nails; also referred to as the largest organ of the body. (protection, temp regulation, eliminate waste, reception of stimuli, vitamin d manufacture)

skeletal system

**The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.

muscular system

**The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production.

circulatory system

**Used to transport materials throughtout the body. Provides oxygen to blood and removes CO2 from blood. Provides nutrients to body tissues and remove wastes from body tissues.

respiratory system

a collection of organs whose primary function is to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide

digestive system

Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.

excretory system

the system that removes waste from your body and controls water balance

immune system

a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response

reproduction system

chemicals that regulate physical development of maturing bodies-makes sex cells

nervous system

the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells

endocrine system

a chemical communication system, using hormones, by which messages are sent through the bloodstream

organ system

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function

organ

a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body

tissue

a group of similar cells that perform a common function

basic types of tissue

**muscle, nervous, connective, epthelial

epithelial

tissue covers internal and external surfaces of body

connective tissue

a body tissue that provides support for the body and connects all of its parts

main organ systems

**integumentry, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory, immune, reproductive, nervous, endocrine

stress

body's reaction to event which can disrupt homeostasis`

joints

places where bones connect: hinge, pivot, gliding, ball and socket

nephrons

**one of a million tiny filtered structures found in the kidneys that removes wastes from blood and produces urine.

osteoporosis

abnormal loss of bony tissue resulting in fragile porous bones attributable to a lack of calcium

third class lever

The fulcrum is at one end of the bar and the effort is between the fulcrum and the resistance

second class lever

The fulcrum is positioned at one end of the bar and the resistance is between the fulcrum and the effort

first class lever

The fulcrum is positioned between the effort and resistance

mechanical advantage (MA)

**the ratio of the force exerted by a machine to the force applied to it

resistance force(R)

force lever puts on object

effort force(E)

force exerted on lever

lever makes work easier

**changes the amount, distance, direction of force needed

lever

a rigid object that turns around a fixed point called a fulcrum

work

when you an exert a force on an object that causes the object to move some distance in the same direction as the force (work=force x distance)

pathogens

Microbes that cause disease

antibodies

proteins in body that destroy pathogens

kinds of marrow

red marrow: makes blood cells
yellow marrow: stores fat

parts of bone

compact bone, outer membrane, marrow, spongy bone

cartilage

connective tissue that is more flexible than bone- cushions bone joints

ligament

connective tissue that holds movable joints together

pivot joint

lets one bone pivot around another

sliding joint

lets one joint slide around another

ball and socket joint

gives best range of motion

2 types of joints

movable & immovable

functions of skeletal system

1. provides shape and support
2. enables you to move
3.protect organs
4. produces blood cells
5. stores mineral and other material until body needs them

tendon

strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

types of muscle

voluntary & involuntary

force

push or pull on an object- measures in newtons(N)

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