Micro Bio Final Review 3

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Micro bio FMl

stop

nonsense mutations lead to the creation of ____codons

penicilin

___ selection metod selects for mutants by killing growing cells

bacteriocins

__ are antibiotics produced by plasmids

competent

to increase the rate of transformation, recipient cells must be made __

auxotroph

a bacteria is called a ____ if it is a mutant that requires additional nutrients

integrating

ICE stands for ___ and conjugative elements

inversion

some bacterias the ability to cause disease is controlled by,___, which is the reveral of gene's orietnation in the chromosome

conditional

temperature sensitive mutants are an example of ___lethal mutants

intercalating

____ agents cause mutation by inserting themselves between base pairs

Ames

the ___ test attempts to quantify carcinogens by measuring back mutation rates in bacteria

site directed

__ mutations are man- made mutations targeted against specific sequences in the host genome

SOS

regulatory system is a DNA repair mechanism which repairs gaps in the DNA lacking a template

88

In the e coli genome __% of the toal genome is ORF

.02-.3

viron sizes are in the size range of ___um to ___Um

Self assembly

in viruses, capsomers come together by a process call ___ to form intact viruses

Icosahedral

Viruses, whose shape contains 20 faces and 12 verticals, are said to have ____ shape

Enveloped

_____ vriuses have as their outer coat the cytoplasmic membrane of their host

monolayer

tissue culture grown as a(n) __ which is used to quantify viruses

Henrietta Lacks

HELA cells were derived from a woman named ___

Restriction

_____ enzymes attack specific sequences and are used to destroy invading viruses

Latent

Herpes viral infections are an example of ___ type of infections

associated adenovirus

AAV stands for ___ viruses which are used for human gene therapy

scrapies

___is a prion disease often found in sheep

lysogeny

lambda repressor protein is used to create the condition of ___ for lambda

Baltimore

the ____ classification system is used to categorize viruses

contractile sheath

the T4 __ is perhaps the smallest biological "muscle"

siderophores

__ are virulence factors bacteria use to bind iron

10^10- 10^11

there are about __ anaerobic bacteria per gram of fecal matter in the human large intestine

hemolysins

___ are cytolytic toxins that attack red blood cells

propionibacterium

body odor is caused by skin bacteria in the genus ___

septicemia

: temporary blood infections are called bacteremia, whereas potentially life threatening blood infections are called

opportunistic

e coli is a common example of a(n) __ pathogen

leukocidins

__ is a bacterial enzyme that attacks white blood cells

enterotoxin

cholera toxin is an example of a ____ toxin

nosocomial

hospital acquired infections are called __ infections

lysozme

tears contain the enzyme,____, which is part of the bodys nonspecific defense mechanism

methane

in some human intestines bacteria produce a flammable gas ___

collgenase

virulent strains of staphylococcus are positive for the enzyme _____

IgE

Immunoglobulins in the class ___ are responsible for allergic reactions

Toxoid

a vaccines made from denature exotoxins is called _____

complement

the ____ system consists of 11 circulating proteins which haven triggered by an antibody can destroy a target cell

IgG

____ is the only immunoglobulin capable of passing throuh the placenta from mother to child

DNA

a ___ vaccine is simply a plasmid with an antigen from a pathogen inserted

B

the humoral immune response is mediated by the ____lymphocytes

IgA

secretory anitbodies are classified in the group ____

haptens

__ are molecules normally too small to be antigens but can combine the blood proteins to be antigenic

major histocompatability

__ complexes are found on the surface of cells and are unique to individuals

disulfide

In immunoglobulins, the heavy and light chains are held together by __ bonds

cytokines

T cells often release __ which are chemical signals used in the immune response

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