# Acute Responses to the CV, R, & M systems

## 17 terms · All the definitions from the acute responses to cardiovascular, respiratory and muscular systems.

### Respiratory rate

Is the number of breaths taken per minute. At rest, the average times you breath per minute is 12-18

### Tidal Volume

Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath. The average tidal volume at rest is 0.5L

### Ventilation

the process of movement of air in and out of your lungs. At rest, the average is 6L of air per minute.
(EQUATION: Tidal Volume X Respiratory rate)

### Minute Ventilation

the total volume of air inhaled and exhaled each minute

### VO2 MAX

Is the maximum amount of oxygen that can be taken into the body and used by the working muscles per minute.

### Heart Rate

is the number of heart beats per minute. The average heart rate for both males and females are:
Males = 60 - 70, Females = 65 - 85

### Stroke Volume

Is the volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each heartbeat. Average at rest is between 70-90 ml.

### Cardiac output

is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle per minute.
(EQUATION: Heart rate X Stroke volume)

### Blood pressure

is the pressure created as blood is pumped through the arteries.

### AVO2 difference

Is the amount of oxygen used up by the tissues in the working muscle. It is the difference between the oxygen concentration in the arteries and veins.

### Pulmonary Diffusion

The exchange of gases between the alveoli and the capillaries in the lungs. Diffusion always occurs from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure.

### Blood flow distribution

its when more blood is directed to the working muscles and other body organs due to demand in oxygenated blood to keep the muscles going.

### Motor Unit recruitment

is the process in which number of active motor units increases to allow more forceful contractions in the working muscles.

### Systolic blood pressure

is the blood pressure recorded as blood is ejected during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. It is the higher of the two blood pressure values.

### Diastolic blood pressure

is the blood pressure recorded during the relaxation phase of the heart cycle. it is the lower of the two blood pressure values.

### Vasodilation

Is the process where blood vessels increase their internal diameter as a response to an increased demand for oxygen delivery to muscle tissue

### Vasoconstriction

Is the process where blood vessels narrow or constrict as a response to a decreased demand for oxygen delivery to muscle tissue