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Mitosis words and definition

Genome

the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism

Genes

the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein

Gametes

sex cells

Zygote

the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)

Somatic Cells

body cells

Diploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number

Haploid

(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes

Sperm

the male reproductive cell

Ova

female sex cell

Gonad

female or male reproductive organ that produces sex cells and hormones; ovary or testis

Testes

The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.

Ovaries

located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone

Fertilization

creation by the physical union of male and female gametes

Homologous Chromosome

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

Karyotype

the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)

Meiosis

(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms

Synapsis

the side by side pairing of homologous maternal and paternal chromosomes at the start of meiosis

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