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Mr. Brown, Literary Term Program

Theme

The dominant idea or message in a literary work.

Short Stories:
"The Most Dangerous Game": The hunter becomes the hunted, human nature.
"The Scarlet Ibis": Pride and selfishness, Human nature.
"The Interlopers": Grudges and hatred are bad.
"The Sniper": War can unknowingly turn brother against brother, human nature.
"The Necklace": Greed and the human condition can lead to many years of sorrow.
"Romeo and Juliet": Fate and love can lead to death
"Of Mice & Men": Society treats disabled people badly
"To Kill A Mockingbird": Prejudice

Motif

A central idea behind the theme. A motif can be an idea, an object, a place, or a statement. A motif differs from a theme in that a theme is an idea set forth by a text, where a motif is a recurring element which symbolizes that idea.

"Romeo and Juliet"- Light and Dark Imagery, Binary Opposites.
"Of Mice and Men"- Loneliness and Companionship, Strength and Weakness
"TKAM"- Gothic Details, Small town life

Irony

When the outcome of an event is the opposite of what originally is or is normally expected.

Examples: "The Gift of the Magi"- The presents bought were expected to be good gifts for the two, but they turned out to be useless.
Other- Fire truck catches on fire. Police Station is burgled.

Verbal Irony

When a character says something that means the opposite of the literal meaning.

"Romeo and Juliet"
Romeo says he is "fortune's fool"
Juliet says if he be married, my grave is like to be my wedding bed.

Dramatic Irony

When the audience knows something that at the time a character does not.

Examples:

"Romeo and Juliet"- Audiences know that Juliet is in deep sleep after taking the drug but Romeo does not know that and he kills himself because he thought Juliet was dead.

"Oedipus Rex"- Oedipus tries to figure out who killed King Thebes without realizing that he was the one who killed him.

Situational Irony

When the action the character performs is the opposite of what the reader expects.

In "The Most Dangerous Game" an example is when Rainsford takes pride in being a hunter and killing animals because they have no feelings, but once he is on the island and becomes the hunted fear courses through his body.
In "Romeo and Juliet" an example of situational irony is when Juliet "kills" herself to be with Romeo, but when Romeo arrives at the tomb and thinks Juliet is dead, he then kills himself and when Juliet wakes up she finds Romeo dead and then kills herself.
In "Of Mice and Men" an example is when Lennie breaks Curley's hand even though Curley started the fight thinking he would win and him acting all tough, but Lennie wins in the end.
In "To Kill a Mockingbird" an example is when Jem and Scout are walking through the woods and Mr. Ewell attacks them, and Boo Radley is the one who saves them when all this time Jem and Scout thought of Boo as a scary guy who wouldn't help anyone for any reason.

Oxymoron

A figure of speech that combines contradictory terms.

"Romeo and Juliet": " Dove-feather'd raven! wolvish-ravening lamb!" (lll.iii.76).
"To Kill a Mockingbird": "The warm bittersweet smell of clean ne*** welcomed us as we entered" (63).

Symbol/Symbolism

Objects, characters, situations, colors, or actions that evoke a range of additional meaning beyond, and usually more abstract, than its literal significance.

Short Stories: "The Scarlet Ibis"; the RED ibis, the RED blood, color symbolism for red.
"Romeo and Juliet": Their relationship is a flower. It buds, blossoms, then dies. It is also overtaken by weeds.
"Of Mice and Men": The snake in the pool that appears in the first and last chapters dies in the end, just as Lennie does.
"To Kill a Mockingbird": The mad dog symbolizes the town succumbing to the so called disease of racism.

Allusion

A brief reference to a person, event, place (real or fictitious) in a literary work. It could also be a casual reference to a famous historical event or literary figure.

"Romeo and Juliet": "arise fair sun and kill the envious moon" (II.ii.4), "the shady curtain from Aurora's bed" (I.i.126).

Analogy

A comparison between two things, typically on the basis of their structure and for the purpose of explanation or clarification.

"Romeo and Juliet": "a rose by any other name would smell as sweet"
"Gulliver's Travels": In Gulliver's Travels, Jonathan Swift describes the societies of the Lilliputians and the Brobdingrags in such a way as to make their characteristics and weaknesses analogous to human society.

Denotation

The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.

Connotation

An idea or feeling that a word invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning.

Ex.The opening to Chapter 6 of Steinbeck's "Of Mice and Men" - "still, rosy, mottled, shade, glided smoothly, twisting, periscope head, motionless heron, shallows, silent, beak lanced down and plucked it, frantically" (78).

Mood

The atmosphere created by the setting, and actions of people and characters in it. Should relate to the emotions felt by the reader.

"Scarlet Ibis"- Ominous, Foreboding, sorrow
"The Sniper"- Suspenseful, saddening, depression
"Of Mice and Men"- Suspicious, tearful, extreme sadness
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- Anger, empathy, Surprise

Tone

The writer's attitude toward the characters or events in a story.

Short Stories:
"The Most Dangerous Game" - straightforward and non-judgmental.
"The Scarlet Ibis" - resentful and reminiscent.
"The Necklace" - unsympathetic towards the protagonist.
"The Sniper" - action and suspense.
"The Interlopers" - suspenseful and gloomy.
"The Gift of the Magi" - wise and bittersweet reminiscence.
"Romeo and Juliet" - somber, all knowing, and solemn.
"Of Mice and Men" - sentimental, doomed, and fatalistic.
"To Kill a Mockingbird" - innocent, dark, and critical to society.

Personification

A figure of speech in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions.

EXAMPLES:
In "The Most Dangerous Game," the dogs are often portrayed as having greedy eyes.
"Romeo and Juliet" speaks of the sun, moon, and other celestial bodies as if they had feelings, and were linked to Romeo and Juliet.

Simile

A comparison between two things using the words "like" or "as."

Examples from "Romeo and Juliet":
- "Is love a tender thing? It is too rough, too rude, too boisterous, and it pricks like thorn."
- "Death lies upon her like an untimely frost."
- "This sight of death is as a bell that warns my old age to a sepulchre."

Metaphor

A comparison or analogy stated so an object is related to another one, figuratively speaking.

Short Stories: "The Most Dangerous Game"- "I'm still a beast at bay", "The Scarlet Ibis"- comparison of Doodle to the ibis
"Romeo and Juliet"- "Shall you compare thee to a summer's day"
"Of Mice and Men"- rabbits representing George and Lennies dream
"To Kill A Mockingbird"- Atticus telling scout you don't know someone until you walk around in their skin for a little while.

Imagery

The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas. Reverts to our human senses of seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, smelling.

Onomatopoeia

The use of words to mimic sounds, which appeal to our sense of hearing and help bring a description to life.

Examples: Boom! Pow! Bam! Meow, Achoo, Boing.

Alliteration

The repetition of initial consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words. Alliteration is used to create melody, establish mood, call attention to important words, and point out similarities and contrasts.

Examples: "Romeo and Juliet" - "From forth the fatal loins of these two foes."

Consonance

A poetic device characterized by repeating of the same consonant two or more times at the end of consecutive words.

"The Most Dangerous Game": moose moving
"The Scarlet Ibis": has had
"The Necklace": delicacies and luxuries
"The Interlopers": ill-will
"The Gift of The Magi": sniffles, and smiles, with sniffles
"The Sniper": here and there
"Romeo and Juliet": heads of the maids, or their maidenheads
"Of Mice and Men": trees the leaves lie deep
"To Kill A Mockingbird": seldom self-conscious

Assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds creating internal rhyming within a word, sentence, or phrase. Together with alliteration and consonance it is a building block of verse.

Ex.: "Romeo and Juliet"- "For men so old as we to keep the peace" and "Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks."

Robert Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"- "Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though."

Edgar Allan Poe's "The Bells"- "Hear the mellow wedding bells" and "From the molten golden notes."

Narrator

The voice of the person who tells the story in a novel, novella, poem, etc. not to be confused with the author's voice.

Ex.: "To Kill A Mockingbird"- Young Scout v. Older Scout (Harper Lee)
"Of Mice and Men"- Third Person Omniscient character
"The Scarlet Ibis"- Older Brother looking back on the event

Speaker

The voice used by an author to tell a story. The speaker is frequently a generated identity. Ex: narrator, persona, point of view.

Short Stories:
Elder Brother in 'The Scarlet Ibis'
Unknown Third Person in "The Interlopers,' 'The Most Dangerous Game," and "The Necklace."

Novel:
The Chorus in 'Romeo and Juliet"
Unknown Third Person in "Of Mice and Men"
Scout Finch in "To Kill a Mockingbird"

Elaboration

The addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail to deepen meaning.

Enumeration

A catalog or a list.

"The Necklace"- the madam writes down the things she must do.

"Romeo and Juliet"- peter has the list for invitations to the capulet party.

"Mockingbird"- When Jem and scout write down the gifts.

Chronological Order

The sequence of events arranged in the order of the occurrence.

"The Most Dangerous Game":
1. Rainsford fell of his boat.
2. Zaroff invites Rainsford to his mansion
3. Rainsford and Zaroff have dinner
4. Zaroff hunts Rainsford
5. Rainsford kills Zaroff

"Romeo and Juliet":
1. Romeo and Juliet falls in love
2. Romeo and Juliet gets married
3. Tybalt kills Mercutio
4. Romeo kills Tybalt
5. Romeo is banished

"Of Mice and Men":
1. George and Lennie starts working at the ranch
2. They meet the boss and other workers
3. Lennie and Curley gets in to a fight
4. Lennie kills Curleys Wife
5. George kills Lennie out of mercy to save him from Curley's punishment

"To Kill a Mockingbird":
1. Scout dresses up as a ham for a Halloween Pageant
2. Scout and Jem walks to the pageant
3. Scout misses her cue
4. Jem and Scout walks back and is attacked by Bob Ewell
5. Boo Radley saves them and kills Bob Ewell

Flashback

A literary technique where the chronological sequence of time is interrupted so a character can look back to their past. This provides more background information about present events in the story.

Examples:
Odysseus from "The Odyssey," retelling his adventures from the Trojan War, meeting Calypso, Island of the Lotus-Eaters, etc.

Brother from "The Scarlet Ibis," reliving his time with Doodle and explaining memories of his brother's life.

Harper Lee in "To Kill a Mockingbird," when she begins the narrative with Jem's broken arm and provides a prolonged flashback to bring us back to present time.

Foreshadowing

Clues or hints given to the reader about events that will happen later on in the story. Foreshadowing is often used to build tension and anticipation, while also used to prepare the reader for later events.

Short Stories: "Most Dangerous Game" - gunshots, Zaroff's opinion on hunting / Sniper - situation, tone / "The Scarlett Ibis" - death of Ibis.
"Romeo and Juliet": Prologue, discussion about killing themselves for love.
"Of Mice and Men": Lennie being told to hide in the bushes if anything bad would happen
"To Kill a Mockingbird": Fire/snow foreshadow change and unnatural events

Point of View

The position or perspective of a character, narrator, or person in a story or an event. It is the viewpoint or outlook of one person to the things that happen around them. There are three main points of view, There is 1st person, 3rd Person Limited, and 3rd Person Omniscent.

Examples: In "To Kill a Mockingbird" the point of view is Scout in 1st Person. In "Of Mice and Men" the point of view is 3rd Person Omniscent. In "The Most Dangerous Games" the point of view is 3rd Person Limited

1st Person (POV)

A tool used by authors to have one character to explain themselves and/or the story by themselves. The narrator uses "I" or "we" to speak. Some writings may have narrators switch off to explain from a different point of view.

Examples: Scout Finch in "To Kill a Mockingbird", Brother in "The Scarlet Ibis," Romeo in "The Strange and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet," and Katniss in "The Hunger Games."

3rd Person Limited (POV)

The narrator knows only the thoughts and feelings of a single character, while other characters are presented only externally.

Examples:
"The Most Dangerous Game": Rainsford
"The Scarlet Ibis": Doodle's brother
"The Sniper": the Sniper
"The Necklace": Mine. Loisel
"The Gift of the Magi": Della
"Mockingbird": young Scout

3rd Person Omniscient (POV)

A narrative story in which the narrator is a third person (not involved in the story) that has the ability to look into people's thoughts and emotions, know what is not yet revealed to the characters and have a god-like presences in one's knowing. Key words that indicate a third person Omniscient view are the pronouns he, she, it, they. TPOV are most often found in epics.

Examples:
Homer's Odyssey

Characterization

The inner thoughts and feelings of a character, which the author potrays in the text. Which includes actions, dialogue and reactions.

Ex: In "To Kill a Mockingbird" one experiences Scout's point of view. So one knows all of her thoughts and feelings.

Direct Characterization

The process by which the personality of a character is reviled by the narrator or other character by the use of descriptive adjectives of phrases about them.

Examples:
"Thou hast hazel eyes" (Shakespeare 14).

Indirect Characterization

The process by which a character's personality is conveyed through his actions and words, rather than by description.

In "To Kill a Mockingbird," there is indirect characterization of Mayella Ewell when she doesn't know what a friend is or what love is. The text here does not state that she is isolated and lonely, yet we can easily draw that from this scene.

In "Romeo and Juliet," there is indirect characterization of Mercutio when he acts rudely to the nurse, calling her names. This reveals how immature he is, though it isn't stated.

Indirect Characterization is displayed in "Of Mice and Men" when Lennie became extremely upset about throwing away a dead mouse that he had been carrying, because he wanted to keep it. The text does not tell you that Lennie has a mental impairment here, but it is shown by this action.

Static Characters

A character who experiences little to no internal development throughout the story.

Novels:
Benvolio "Romeo and Juliet"
Curley's Wife "Of Mice and Men"
Atticus Finch "To Kill a Mockingbird"

Short Stories:
Doodle "The Scarlet Ibis"
General Zaroff "The Most Dangerous Game"
Madame Forestier "The Necklace"

Dynamic Characters

A character who undergoes some sort of change because of the action of the plot

Examples: Rainsford - "Most Dangerous Game," Brother- "The Scarlet Ibis," "The Necklace"- Mathilde, "The Sniper"- The sniper, Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym- "The Interlopers,"- Della and James Young- "The Gift of the of the Magi," Romeo and Juliet- "The Strange and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet," George- "Of Mice and Men," Scout- "To Kill a Mockingbird."

Round Characters

A fully developed, 3-dimentional character, that normally goes through some type of internal conflict.

Examples:
"Romeo and Juliet" - Friar Lawrence , Romeo, Juliet
"Of Mice and Men"- George, Lennie
"To Kill a Mockingbird" - Jem, Scout, Dill

Flat Characters

Two-dimensional characters that they are relatively uncomplicated and experience little characterization throughout the course of a work.

Examples ~
"The Most Dangerous Game" - The General. This character does not change their personality during the story, making them a flat character.

"The Scarlett Ibis" - 'Brother'. You do not see very much of his character, but it does not change throughout the story, therefore, he is a flat character.

"Romeo and Juliet" - Paris. In R&J, Paris always seems to be centered around himself, only doing something if it could benefit him in any sort of way. Paris does not change, therefore, he is a flat character.

"Of Mice and Men" - Lennie is an example of a flat character in this particular story. He knows what he is doing is wrong, but sometimes it seems like he may not be able to stop himself from doing it. This happens many times in this story. Lennie's personality towards everything does not change throughout. This makes Lennie a flat character.

Antagonist

A character who interferes or poses a direct threat to the protagonist. The antagonist is against what the protagonist is trying to do and they are the enemy that the protagonist must overcome to be successful in his goal. The antagonist is usually hostile and interferes with whatever the protagonist is trying accomplish.

Short Stories
"The Most Dangerous Game"- Zarroff
"The Scarlet Ibis"- Brother
"The Sniper"- Enemy sniper on the opposing side
"Romeo and Juliet"- Tybalt, Fate, Society
"Of Mice and Men"- Curly, the Great Depression\
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- Maycomb's "disease," Bob Ewell

Protagonist

The main character or hero in a story. They are depicted as the one who experiences the actions and events that happen around them and are telling the story from a 1st person, 2nd person, or 3rd person Point of View.

Short Stories: Rainsford- "The Most Dangerous Game"
Brother and Doodle- "The Scarlet Ibis"
Mathilde- "The Necklace"
The sniper- "The Sniper"
Ulrich von Gradwitz and Georg Znaeym- "The Interlopers"
Della and James Young- "The Gift of the Magi"
Romeo and Juliet- "The Strange and Lamentable Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet."
George and Lennie-Of Mice and Men
Scout-To Kill a Mockingbird

Hero/Heroine

The protagonist of the story who embodies supernatural strength and abilities, all while remaining subject to the human condition.

Short Stories:
"The Most Dangerous Game"- Rainsford
"The Sniper"- Sniper
"Romeo & Juliet"- Romeo and Juliet
"Of Mice & Men"- George
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- Atticus

Archetype

A universal pattern or model that is later copied, such as a character, action, or situation. An archetype has meaning, and often applies to a common pattern in life.

Examples:
"Of Mice and Men": Curley is archetypal of a man who feels inferior because of his height.
"To Kill a Mockingbird": Atticus Finch's archetype is the wise man.
"Romeo and Juliet": Romeo and Juliet's archetype is the star crossed lovers.

Stereotype

A widely held belief that is usually very simplified, over-simplified actually, about a specific person or group of people.

Short Stories: "The Scarlet Ibis"- Doodle was disabled, and people judged him and stereotyped him as being a "freak" and "outcast".
"Romeo and Juliet"- Romeo is the sterotyped as "The Courtly Lover."
"Of Mice and Men": Lennie is sterotyped as being just a big strong guy who is stupid. He is stereotyped as all brawn, no brains. On the other hand, George is stereotyped as just being all brains, no brawn.
"Mockingbird: Tom Robinson is racially stereotyped. He is stereotyped as being a bad person just because he is black. Boo is stereotyped as being "sketchy" and a bad person also just because people don't know him and they assume because all they know is that he is very private.

Conflict

The problem, threat, or force the protagonist must face throughout the story. Usually it is apparent after the turning point and is resolved in the end. There may be more than one conflict.

Short Stories:
"The Dangerous Game": The conflict is between Rainsford and Zaroff. Rainsford is the protagonist and must fight for his life, while Zaroff tries to kill him.
"The Interlopers": The conflict is between the two feuding families.
"The Sniper": The conflict is internal; it is between the sniper and how he feels.
"Romeo and Juliet": The main conflict is between the Capuletes and the Montauges, and how Romeo and Juliet can never be together.
"Of Mice and Men": A minor conflict is between Lennie and Curly, and how Curly needs to "size Lennie up."
"Mockingbird": The conflict is between Society and the Finch family.

Exposition- Initial Situation

The beginning part of a literary work where basic information, such as the protagonist, surrounding characters, and setting, is introduced. The initial situation refers to any events prior to plot buildup or complication (rising action), and it describes the basic, background environment before the characters wreak havoc.

"Of Mice & Men": Introduction to George and Lennie's relationship, and filling in the back story to the events in Weed.
"To Kill A Mockingbird": Innocent experiences of Jem, Dill, and Scout up until chapter 7, including the establishment of the mystery of the Radley house. There's a breakdown of Maycomb --- how it functions.

Rising Action- Complication

A related series of incidents in a literary plot that build toward the point of greatest interest- the climax. It usually details the subsequent conflicts and struggles of the protagonist.

Climax (Main Turning Point)

The point of greatest interest in a story, where there is marked change for better or worse in the protagonist's affairs.

"The Most Dangerous Game"- The jump into the ocean
"The Interlopers"- They hear the wolves
"The Scarlet Ibis"- Brother leaves Doodle behind
"The Necklace"- The pair discover the necklace is gone
"The Sniper"- Sniper discovers identity of enemy
"The Gift of the Magi"- The couple opening their gifts
"Romeo and Juliet"- Tybalt is killed
"Of Mice and Men"- Lennie kills Curley's wife
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- The jury rules Tom guilty

Falling Action- Suspense/Denouement

The events in the plotline following the climax or turning point. This is where the main conflict unravels and the loose ends are tied up. Action gradually subsides, and one sees how the characters are affected by the outcome of the conflict.

"The Most Dangerous Game"- Zaroff returns to his chateau and sees Rainsford hiding in the curtains.
"The Necklace"- Mathilde and her husband move into an even smaller apartment and work relentlessly to pay for the replacement necklace.
"The Gift of the Magi"- When Della and Jim discover that their presents are useless, but serve as a reminder of their love for each other.
"Romeo and Juliet"- Juliet hears of Tybalt's death and Romeo's banishment. She is further dispaired by the early wedding date and formulates and carries out a plan with the Friar to fake her death.
"Of Mice and Men"- Lennie runs away after killing Curley's wife and is pursued soon afterwards. George then finds him in the clearing and shoots him in the head.
"Mockingbird"- Tom Robinson is shot while attempting to escape from prison. The conflict with Bob Ewell also ends when he attacks the children and is killed by Boo. Scout then meets Boo for the first time and the last time.

Resolution & Conclusion

Referring to the outcome or result of a complex situation or sequence of events, the aftermath that usually occurs near the final stages of the plot. The end of a story when everything comes full circle and finally ends.

"Dangerous Game"- When Rainsford appears back in Zaroffs room and kills him (or so we think)
"Interlopers"- When the men are killed by the wolves in the forest
"Romeo and Juliet"- When Romeo and Juliet are found dead in the tomb and the town gathers to see the dead teens.
"Of Mice and Men"- When George and Slim take the train away from the farm
"Mockingbird"- When Atticus reads the story to Scout and she finally realises that judging people is wrong and not to judge until you walk in their shoes.

Drama

A prose or verse composition, especially one telling a serious story, that is intended for representation by actors impersonating the characters and performing the dialogue and action.

Tragedy

A dramatic play dealing with unfortunate events and having an unhappy ending, especially one concerning the downfall of the main character(s).

"Romeo and Juliet": Their lack of communication and society cause them to commit suicide.

"Of Mice and Men": Lennie's fate with Curley and Curley's wife causes George to kill him.

Genre

The way all forms of literature are categorized, recognized as having similar subjects or themes.

"The Most Dangerous Game's" genre is Thriller because of Rainsford's tense situations and the inevitable possibility of death.
"Romeo and Juliet's" genre can be classified as a romantic tragedy due to the inseparable love of Romeo and Juliet ending in both of their premature deaths.
"To Kill a Mockingbird's" genre is social drama and historical fiction due to the reoccurring themes of society and the time period.

Comedy

A dramatic work that is light and often humorous or satirical in tone and that usually contains a happy resolution of the thematic conflict.

Poetry

A mostly short literary piece in which special intensity is given to the expression of feelings and ideas by the use of distinctive style and meter/rhythm.

Verse

Metrical feet written, or printed as one line. One of the lines in poetry.

"Romeo and Juliet"- O Romeo, Romeo! Wherefore art thou Romeo?

"To A Mouse by Robert Burns"*- Small, sleek, cowering, timorous beast,
*On which the title of Of Mice and Men

"A Red Wheelbarrow by William Carlos Williams"*- a red wheel

Elegy

A mournful, sad poem that is used for a funeral song or a lament for the dead.

"Romeo and Juliet": "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo" (V.iii.309-10).

Epic Poem

A long, narrative poem, usually of oral tradition, that recounts the larger-than-life deeds of a great hero, often of divine descent. The hero embodies the values of a particular society and struggles against terrific odds or adversaries.

Examples: ""Beowulf"- English, "Odyssey"- Greek

Lyric Poetry

Consists of a poem, such as a sonnet or ode, which expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet.

"Romeo and Juliet"- The famous Prologue from Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is a sonnet. The poet knows that the two lovers are doomed, but their death will end their family's feud. (Example is first 2 sentences of sonnet):

"Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,"

Outside Example: Shall I compare thee to a summers day
(Sonnet 18) is a sonnet by William Shakespeare. The poet is describing his feelings toward someone by comparing them to a summer's day. (Example is first 2 sentences of sonnet):

"Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate."

Ballad

A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain (repeated stanza).

Ode

A long, often elaborate stanza poem of varying line lengths and sometimes intricate rhyme schemes dealing with a serious subject matter and treating it reverently.

Although no Odes appear in our four units of study, two famous examples of Odes are John Keat's "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode to a Nightingale."

The first ten lines of "Ode on a Grecian Urn"

"THOU still unravish'd bride of quietness,
Thou foster-child of Silence and slow Time,
Sylvan historian, who canst thus express
A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme:
What leaf-fringed legend haunts about thy shape
Of deities or mortals, or of both,
In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?
What men or gods are these? What maidens loth?
What mad pursuit? What struggle to escape?
What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?"

Haiku

A major Japanese verse written with 17 syllables following the pattern 5-7-5, usually showing a characteristic of nature or seasons.

From "Romeo and Juliet":
Prologue: Flame of airy word
Sparks death and fatal passion
laying in the stars

Act II: Stolen fatal kiss
Star crossed lovers full of love
With lightning quickness

Conclusion: Poor sacrifices
Fools death decreed by the stars
Glooming peace remains

Prose

A type of writing where you would write without rhythm and more of a straight forward way of writing. WORDS.

"Romeo and Juliet"- Shakespeare often switched Verse and Prose when writing the story.

Fiction

Prose literature, especially short stories and novels, about imaginary events and people. It is an invention or fabrication as opposed to fact.

All short stories & works we've read are fictional-
"The Scarlet Ibis": The storyline is made up
"The Necklace": The storyline is made up
"The Sniper": Events are real but characters are fictional.
"The Interlopers": The storyline is made up
"The Gift of the Magi": The storyline is made up
"R&J": Everything is made up
"OMAM": Lennie, George, and other characters are fictional
"TKAM": Fictional storyline but the trial is made up too

Novel

A fictitious piece of literature, usually of considerable length and complexity with developed characters and environments, presenting a sequential organization of action and scenes.

Examples

"To Kill A Mocking Bird" and "Ender's Game" are both novels. They are fictions and have developed plot, characters ,and ideas and lengthy books.

"Of Mice And Men" has developed characters and plot but is considered a novella because it is shorter due to minimal plot development and characterization.

The short stories we studied at the beginning of the year ("The Most Dangerous Game," "The Scarlet Ibis," etc.) have little complexity, and are very short and are considered short stories.

"Romeo and Juliet" is a play and that is a completely different type of work

Short Story

A piece of prose fiction which can be read at a single sitting.

"The Necklace," "The Scarlet Ibis," "The Most Dangerous Game."

Character Sketch

A brief description or portrayal of a person's character, qualities, etc, both via indirect and direct characterization.

Fable

A brief story with a moral, usually using animals.

Any of Aesop's Fables
- The Hare and the Tortoise
- The Boy Who Cried Wolf

Legend

A story or a narrative that lies somewhere between a myth and historical fact, and it is about a particular figure or person. It focuses on a specific location or historical figure, and it usually does not involve supernatural events.

- Robin Hood, Fountain of Youth, Bloody Mary, Atlantis, El Dorado, King Arthur, Flying Dutchman

Myth

A traditional story that is rooted in a particular culture, is somewhat religious, and serves to explain a belief, ritual, or natural phenomenon.

The twelve labors of Hercules is an example of a common myth.

Non-fiction

An account, narrative, or representation of a subject which an author presents as FACT. Any form of work, narrative, or account, intended to be factual.

Biography

An account of a person's life written, composed, or produced by another.

Autobiography

An account of a person's life written by that person.

Diary of Anne Frank- Anne Frank
Eat, Pray, Love- Elizabeth Gilbert
The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin- Benjamin Franklin

Critique

A detailed, and often constructive analysis or assessment of something, especially a literary novel, poem, or play.

Memoir

A biographical or historical account, especially one based on personal knowledge, or an account of one's personal life or experiences.

Examples include "Night" by Elie Wiesel and "To Kill a Mockingbird" by Harper Lee.

Dramatic Structure

The structure of a dramatic work that contains five parts including an exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, and conclusion.

Dramatic structure is found in the play "Romeo and Juliet."
Exposition/Initial Situation of Romeo and Juliet- The exposition is when the Montagues and Capulets have a brawl at the start of the play and Romeo confesses his "love" for Rosaline.

Conflict of Romeo and Juliet- Two Households- set up in Prologue, Romeo finding out Juliet is a Capulet (end of Act I).

Rising Action of Romeo and Juliet- The rising action is when Romeo and Juluet secretly get married because they know that a marriage between them would not be allowed by their parents.

Climax of Romeo and Juliet- The climax of Romeo and Juliet is when the Prince banishes Romeo for killing Tybalt.

Falling Action/Suspense. of Romeo and Juliet- The falling action is when Paris and Juliet are going to be married and Juliet entrusts in the Friar's plan to save her from it.

Conclusion/Resolution of Romeo and Juliet- The conclusion is when Romeo and Juliet both kill themselves because they think the other dead and the Capulets and Montagues agree to end the feud for their sake.

Dialogue

The conversation between two or more people as a feature of a novel, poem, or play.

Monologue

A speaker addresses a silent (or absent) listener in a moment of high intensity or deep emotion. Dramatic monologue is a kind of lyric poem distinguished from soliloquy in that soliloquy, the speaker is not addressing anyone in particular.

"Romeo and Juliet"- Juliet:
"Farewell! God knows when we shall meet again.
I have a faint cold fear thrills through my veins,
That almost freezes up the heat of life:
I'll call them back again to comfort me:
Nurse! What should she do here?
My dismal scene I needs must act alone.
Come, vial.
What if this mixture do not work at all?
Shall I be married then to-morrow morning?
No, no: this shall forbid it: lie thou there" (IV.iii.2565-74).

Soliloquy

A speech in a play that is meant to be heard by the audience but not by the other characters on stage.

"Romeo and Juliet": Romeo's pre balcony speech in the garden. Friar's speech while picking flowers in the garden (Act I, scene i).

Aside

When words are spoken by an actor directly to the audience, which are not "heard" by the other characters on stage during a play.

"Romeo and Juliet"-
ROMEO: Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?
JULIET: 'Tis but thy name that is my enemy. Thou art thyself, though not a Montague. ...
both examples from the balcony scene.

Stage Directions

Instructions written into the script/margins of a play, indicating the prescribed actions, movements of performers, or production requirements on stage.

Staging

An "instance or method" of presenting a play or other dramatic performance: "Wow, that was one of the better stagings of Romeo and Juliet in the last ten years."

Meter

The basic rhythmic structure of a verse in poetry.

(Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet)
"It is the east, and Juliet is the sun."

(Suzanne Collins' Catching Fire)
"Are you, are you
coming to the tree
where they strung up a man they say murdered three"

Rhyme

The repetition of identical or similar sounds in two or more different words. There are various types of rhyme: end, internal, and slant.

"Walk- Talk"
"Sly- Eye"
"Cat- Hat"
"Flower- Shower"

Rhymes are usually found in the form of a poem. They can also occur in the:

Beginning- "My fat cat laid around"
Middle- "The rain showered and flowered the meadow"
End- "Say goodbye to Wilfred the fat cat"

This also applies to the internal and end rhyme displayed between rhyme phrases.

End Rhyme

The repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them within similar words at the end of each line.

Example from "Romeo and Juliet"
"Two households, both alike in dignity, in fair Verona where we lay our SCENE
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny where civil blood makes civil hands UNCLEAN."

Internal Rhyme

Rhyme occurring in a single line of verse, often located in the middle of the line.

Example: "Once upon amidnight dreary,while I pondered weak and weary" (The Raven).
"In mist or cloud, on a mass or shroud" (The Ancient Mariner).

Slant Rhyme

Rhymes made out of words with similar but not identical sounds. In most of these instances, either the vowels are different while the consonants are identical, also may happen the other way around.

Example:
"Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny"
(Prologue.I).
Slant Rhyme Here would be the terms "dignity" and "mutiny."

Rhyme Scheme

The pattern of rhyme between the lines of a poem, usually referred to by using letters with which the lines rhyme. AA,BB,CC,DD,EE, ect.

"Romeo and Juliet" Prologue
(Scheme: ababcdcdefefgg)

"Two househols, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal lions of these two foes
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life;
Whose misadventured piteous overthrows
Do with their death bury their parents' strife.
The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love,
And the continiance of their parents' rage,
Which, but their children's end, nought could remove,
Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage;
The which if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend."

Couplet

A pair of successive lines of verse that rhymes and are of the same metrical length, and form a single unit.

Shakespeare used couplet at the end of his sonnets concluding and summing up the main ideas of the lines.
"The which, if you with patient ears attend, / What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend" (Shakespeare 7).

Quatrain

A four line stanza, especially one having alternate rhymes.

"Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge--break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean."
(Shakespeare Prologue).

Sestet

A six line poem or stanza; The last six lines of a Petrarchan or Italian sonnet.

Example:

Shakespeare incorporates a sestet in the prologue of Romeo and Juliet; The entire prologue is a sonnet and the sestet itself is the second part of the whole sonnet, or the last 6 lines.

"The fearful passage of their death-marked love
And the continuance of their parents' rage,
Which, but their children's end, naught could remove,
Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage—
The which, if you with patient ears attend,
What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend."

Octet

The first 8 lines of a Petrarchan or Italian sonnet. Usually presents a situation, an idea, or a question.

Shakespeare used octects in his prologue presenting the situation of the two households, and Romeo and Juliet's love being overcome by the fued.

"Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny,
Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.
From forth the fatal loins of these two foes
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life;
Whole misadventured piteous overthrows
Do with their death bury their parents' strife."

Free Verse

Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter.

Blank Verse

Verse without rhyme, especially that which uses iambic pentameter. "Unrhymed iambic pentameter."

Iambic Pentameter

An unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable, five times.

"Romeo and Juliet":
"but, SOFT! what LIGHT through YONder WINdow BREAKS?
thy DRUGS are QUICK. thus WITH a KISS i DIE."

"Of Mice and Men" (iambic tetrameter):
the BEST laid SCHEMES of MICE and MEN

Stanza

A fixed number of verse lines (more than 2) arranged in a definite metrical pattern, forming a unit of a poem.

Repetition

The return of a word phrase or stanza in any form of literature.

"Romeo and Juliet" - when the nurse says "O woeful, O woeful, woeful, woeful day!"
"Of Mice and Men" - when George and Lennie keep saying they "could live offa the fatta the lan.'"

Apostrophe

An address to someone not present, or to a personified object or idea.

"Romeo and Juliet"- "O Fortune, Fortune! all men call thee fickle; if thou art fickle, what dost thou with him that is renown'd for faith? Be fickle, Fortune; for then, I hope, thou wilt not keep him long, but send him back." (III.v.60-4).

"To a Mouse- "Small, crafty, cowering, timorous little beast,
O, what a panic is in your little breast!
You need not start away so hasty
With argumentative chatter!
I would be loath to run and chase you,
With murdering plough-staff."

Hyperbole

An extreme exaggeration, not meant to be taken seriously or literally, but utilized for the safe of emphasis.

"The Most Dangerous Game":
"He lived a year in a minute."

"Romeo and Juliet":
"My bounty is as boundless as the sea" (2.2.140).
"The brightness of her cheek would shame those stars"
"Her maid art far more fair than [the moon]."

"Of Mice and Men":
"'Jes a little stretch" (Steinbeck 2).
"Lennie choked with pride" (18).
"Millions of 'em" (5).

"To Kill a Mockingbird":
"Well how'd you feel if you'd been shut up for a hundred years?" (Lee 47).
"Your name's longer than you are" (8).

"The Scarlet Ibis":
"...hurting me so badly I thought I was crippled for life."

Understatement

Never Submitted by Student- please find own definition.

Cliche

A phrase, expression, or idea that has been overused to the point of losing its intended force or novelty, especially when at some time it was considered distinctively forceful or novel.

"Romeo and Juliet"- "A rose by any other name".
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- Even though Scout doesn't actually meet Boo until the end of book she makes many judgments based on what she's heard.

Rhetorical Question

A question asked solely to produce an effect or to make an assertion and not to elicit a reply. "Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?" - Shakespearian Sonnet

Pun

A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words.

"Romeo and Juliet"
"Ask for me tomorrow and you shall find me a grave man."

Idiom

An expression or phrase that corresponds with or describes an action or noun. An example would be "kicking the bucket," "taking a knee," or "driving him crazy."

An example would be from "To Kill a Mockingbird" - "Boo wasn't crazy, he was high-strung at times" or "Jump in another person's skin and walk around in it."

There are plenty of more idioms in "To Kill a Mockingbird" because of the setting and time (i.e. the 1930s in the Southern United States).

Syntax

The way words or phrases are arranged in a sentence.

Examples:
"Romeo and Juliet"
1) "And never from this palace of dim night depart again."
2) "O, here will I set up my everlasting rest, and shake the yoke of inauspicious stars from this world-wearied flesh."

Diction

Word choice used to create a different picture in the reader's mind.

"The Scarlet Ibis"- The use of the adjective "Scarlet" in the place of red.
"Romeo and Juliet"- "Fetch me my rapier, boy" (Shakespeare I.V.677). Rapier is replacing sword to help the reader imagine the scene better.
"Of Mice and Men"- "...it has slipped twinkling over the yellow sands in the sunlight..." (Steinbeck 1). Twinkling replaces many alternative words such as dripping or spilling.
"To Kill a Mockingbird"- "...it was a tired old town when I first knew it" (Lee 3). A tired town depicts a poor, but not destitute, town that holds on to its past culture and customs.

Dialect

The voice in which the piece is written or the characters speak. It illustrates the background information of the piece, such as location, age, time period, etc. It is the primary building block of the voice of any literary work.

Examples:
Southern slang used in both Harper Lee's "To Kill A Mockingbird" and the colloquial nature of John Steinbeck's "Of Mice and Men." They mirror the way individuals speak- first, small town/rural Alabama, and second, migrant workers during the Depression era.

Allegory

A work in which the characters and events are to be understood as representing other things and symbolically expressing a deeper, often spiritual, moral, or political meaning.

Romeo and Juliet
Lord of the Flies
Gulliver's Travels

Foil (study this term!)

A character, theme, idea, ect. that is used as a contrast to another in appearance, actions, meaning, or deeds. By setting up this contrast, the author underscores the vast differences between the characters/ideas and what they represent or bring to the work.

Short Stories: Rainsford v. Zaroff- Dangerous Game
Sniper v. Sniper- The Sniper, Ulrich von Gradwitz v. Georg Znaeym- The Interlopers. R&J: Romeo (Romantic and Naive) v. Mercutio (Bawdy and Experienced), The Housholds (Societal Expectations) v. Young Lovers (Individual Desires), Friar (Father/Mentor) v. Nurse (Mother/Mentor), Romeo (Feminine) v. Tybalt (Male Bravado). OM&M: George (Small/Smart) v. Lennie (Large/Disabled), George (Lennie) v. Candy (Old Dog), TKAM: Atticus (Pillar of Community) v. Bob Ewell (Dredge of Community), Atticus (Father/Mentor) v. Miss Maudie/Aunt Alexandra (Mother/Mentor), Boo/Robinson (Innocence/Mockingbird) v. Dubose/Ewell (Experience/Blue-Jays).

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