the trends and behaviors of chemicals are displayed in patterns on the periodic table. this is called ____ ____.
elements in the same group generally have _____ chemical properties
____ was the first chemist to organize the periodic table in a way where patterns & chemical and physical properties can be predicted
what are some types of characteristics that can be predicted of an element based on its location on the periodic table?
color, atomic weight, density, Specific heat capacity, melting point ect.
_____ a British physicist arranged the elements in order according to increasing atomic number
two things that influence the attraction the electron has for the nucleus are:
distance e⁻ is from the nucleus
effective nuclear charge ( Zeff)
the closer the electron is to the ____ the stronger the attraction is.
electrons in lower energy levels have a ____ pull towards the nucleus
electrons in the SAME energy level do not __ one another; making on have a stronger pull onto the nucleus than the other.
the core electrons shield the valence electrons from filling the full attraction of the positive nucleus of the atom which is called the ____ _____.
(T/F) electrons with the same principle quantum number also shield each other, but to a very small extent; therefore they are ignored when looking at Zeff
Zeff ___ as you move across the period because the shielding constant remains constant since the core electrons are not increasing.
the ____ ____ is one-half of the distance between the covalently bonded nuclei
the bonding atomic radius ____ as you move down a group
Atomic Radius _____ as you move across a period
atoms get ____ as you move across a period because the shielding constant remains constant and the Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) increases, therefore the electrons are getting pulled ___ to the nucleus
the ionic size depends on:
the orbital in which the valence electrons reside
cations are smaller/larger than the their parent atom
anions are smaller/larger than their parent atoms
ions increase/decrease in size as you go down a column on the periodic table
______ ions have the same number of electrons
cations will always be smaller/larger than the anions as you move across period
ionic size ______ with an increasing nuclear charge
the amount of energy required to move an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion is explained in the ______ process
it requires ______ energy to remove each successive electron in the endothermic process
(T/F)as you start removing electrons from the orbital there is a higher proton to electron ration, therefore the remaining electrons are getting pulled in harder by the nucleus.
once the atom reaches the electron configuration of a _____ ____, the ionization energy becomes extremely large b/c of the stable electron configuration
as one goes down a row on the periodic table ____ energy is required to remove an electron.
as one goes across an row on the periodic table it takes ____ energy to remove an electron.
what are 2 exceptions to the ionization energy trends?
the 3A family
the 6A family
__________ is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element
an atom with a ___ electronegativity with pull harder on a shared bonding electron. an atom with a ___ electronegativity will not pull as hard on the shared bonging electrons
electronegativity ____ as you go across a the periodic table and _____ as you go down the periodic table.
the most commonly used electronegativity scale is the ____ scale
how does the Pauling scale characterize each element/
on a number system from 0-4 (0 being the noble gasses with the lowest electronegativity, and the elements with the strongest electronegativity at 4)
_____ is an example of an element with the largest Pauling number of 4.
(T/F) the difference in the electronegativities of two elements can be used to predict the nature of the chemical bond
what are the 3 typs of bonds?
which bond has the property of equal sharing of electrons?
which type of bond is characterized with the unequal sharing of electrons?
which type of bond is characterized by the full transfer of the electron?
if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is zero what type of bond will it be?
if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is greater than or equal to 2 what type of bond will it be?
if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is between 0 and 2 what type of bond will it be?
increasing difference in electronegativity:
_____ --> ______ --> ______
(fill in the blank with: ionic, nonpolar covalent, and polar covalent)
nonpolar- polar- ionic
______ ____ are the outer energy level electrons of an atom. the valence electrons are teh electrons that participate in the chemical bonding.
the ___ ____ states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have 8 valence electrons
atoms react to achieve ___ ___ configuration
what are the 2 types of compounds?
molecular and ionic
_____ compounds are made up of nonmetals trying to achieve their octet by sharing their electrons.
_____ compounds are made up of a metal cation and a nonmetal anion.
metal cations will acieve their octets by ____ valence electrons.
nonmetal ions will obtain its octet by ____ valence electrons.
_____ ions are ions from halogens that gain electrons to acheve their octet
the bond where metal cations and nonmetal anions are held together by opposite charges
ionic compounds are called ____
the simplest ratio of ionic compounds is called the _____ ____.
electrons are transferred/gained with the goal of:
achieveing noble gas electron configuration.
ionic compounds have a _____ structure and are usually solids
ions are (weakly/strongly) bonded together
ionic compounds have ___ melting points
what must you do to melt an ionic compound?
all the ionic bonds must be broken in order for the cations and anions to float around
electrical ____ will occur when charges are free to move around
(T/F) ionic solids are insulators
melted ionic compounds (conduct/don't conduct) electricity
what must you do to an ionic compound to get them to conduct?
metal atoms are held together in the solid state by _______ bonds
metals have a very (weak/strong) hold on their valence electrons
how would you describe a metallic bond?
positive cations floating around in a sea of electrons
a) hammered into shape (bend)
b) ductile (can be drawn into wires)
a & b
both malleability and ductility explain in terms the ____ of the valence electrons
(T/F) ionic solids are rough
False- they are brittle (strong repulsion can break them apart)
if a metal is made up of on kind of atom, they are among the simplest ___.
how many neighbors does a body-centered cubic structure have?
what crystalline structure is made up of atoms, ions or molecules that are located on the corners and in the center of the cube?
how many neighbors do hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures have?
what crystalline structure is made up of atoms, ions, or molecules that are located on the corners and on the faces of the cube?
we use lots of metals everyday but few are _____ metals
an ____ is a mixture of two or more elements, and at least one is a metal
how do you make alloys?
melt a mixture of the ingredients and then cool
what is brass made up of?
Cu and Zn
what is sterling silver made up of?
what is steel made up of?
properties of alloys are often ____ to the original elements, and _____-
______ alloys are where smaller atoms are fit into the spaces between larger metal atoms
the smaller atoms in interstitial alloys act as _____ and keep the larger atoms stable in place