Chem Chapters 14-15

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Haralson -Honors

the trends and behaviors of chemicals are displayed in patterns on the periodic table. this is called ____ ____.

chemical periodicity

elements in the same group generally have _____ chemical properties

similar

____ was the first chemist to organize the periodic table in a way where patterns & chemical and physical properties can be predicted

mendeleev

what are some types of characteristics that can be predicted of an element based on its location on the periodic table?

color, atomic weight, density, Specific heat capacity, melting point ect.

_____ a British physicist arranged the elements in order according to increasing atomic number

Moseley

two things that influence the attraction the electron has for the nucleus are:

distance e⁻ is from the nucleus
effective nuclear charge ( Zeff)

the closer the electron is to the ____ the stronger the attraction is.

nucleus

electrons in lower energy levels have a ____ pull towards the nucleus

stronger

electrons in the SAME energy level do not __ one another; making on have a stronger pull onto the nucleus than the other.

shield

the core electrons shield the valence electrons from filling the full attraction of the positive nucleus of the atom which is called the ____ _____.

shielding effect

(T/F) electrons with the same principle quantum number also shield each other, but to a very small extent; therefore they are ignored when looking at Zeff

true

Zeff ___ as you move across the period because the shielding constant remains constant since the core electrons are not increasing.

increases

the ____ ____ is one-half of the distance between the covalently bonded nuclei

atomic radius

the bonding atomic radius ____ as you move down a group

increases

Atomic Radius _____ as you move across a period

decreases

atoms get ____ as you move across a period because the shielding constant remains constant and the Effective nuclear charge (Zeff) increases, therefore the electrons are getting pulled ___ to the nucleus

smaller, closer

the ionic size depends on:

nuclear charge
the orbital in which the valence electrons reside

cations are smaller/larger than the their parent atom

smaller

anions are smaller/larger than their parent atoms

larger

ions increase/decrease in size as you go down a column on the periodic table

increase

______ ions have the same number of electrons

isoelectronic

cations will always be smaller/larger than the anions as you move across period

smaller

ionic size ______ with an increasing nuclear charge

decreases

the amount of energy required to move an electron from the ground state of a gaseous atom or ion is explained in the ______ process

endothermic

it requires ______ energy to remove each successive electron in the endothermic process

more

(T/F)as you start removing electrons from the orbital there is a higher proton to electron ration, therefore the remaining electrons are getting pulled in harder by the nucleus.

true

once the atom reaches the electron configuration of a _____ ____, the ionization energy becomes extremely large b/c of the stable electron configuration

noble gas

as one goes down a row on the periodic table ____ energy is required to remove an electron.

less

as one goes across an row on the periodic table it takes ____ energy to remove an electron.

more

what are 2 exceptions to the ionization energy trends?

the 3A family
the 6A family

__________ is the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined with another element

electronegativity

an atom with a ___ electronegativity with pull harder on a shared bonding electron. an atom with a ___ electronegativity will not pull as hard on the shared bonging electrons

larger, smaller

electronegativity ____ as you go across a the periodic table and _____ as you go down the periodic table.

increases, decreases

the most commonly used electronegativity scale is the ____ scale

Pauling

how does the Pauling scale characterize each element/

on a number system from 0-4 (0 being the noble gasses with the lowest electronegativity, and the elements with the strongest electronegativity at 4)

_____ is an example of an element with the largest Pauling number of 4.

fluorine

(T/F) the difference in the electronegativities of two elements can be used to predict the nature of the chemical bond

true

what are the 3 typs of bonds?

nonpolar covalent
polar covalent
ionic

which bond has the property of equal sharing of electrons?

nonpolar covalent

which type of bond is characterized with the unequal sharing of electrons?

polar covalent

which type of bond is characterized by the full transfer of the electron?

ionic

if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is zero what type of bond will it be?

nonpolar covalent

if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is greater than or equal to 2 what type of bond will it be?

ionic

if the difference of the two atoms' pauling numbers is between 0 and 2 what type of bond will it be?

polar covalent

increasing difference in electronegativity:
_____ --> ______ --> ______
(fill in the blank with: ionic, nonpolar covalent, and polar covalent)

nonpolar- polar- ionic

______ ____ are the outer energy level electrons of an atom. the valence electrons are teh electrons that participate in the chemical bonding.

valence electrons

the ___ ____ states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have 8 valence electrons

octet rule

atoms react to achieve ___ ___ configuration

noble gas

what are the 2 types of compounds?

molecular and ionic

_____ compounds are made up of nonmetals trying to achieve their octet by sharing their electrons.

molecular

_____ compounds are made up of a metal cation and a nonmetal anion.

ionic

metal cations will acieve their octets by ____ valence electrons.

loosing

nonmetal ions will obtain its octet by ____ valence electrons.

gaining

_____ ions are ions from halogens that gain electrons to acheve their octet

halide

the bond where metal cations and nonmetal anions are held together by opposite charges

ionic

ionic compounds are called ____

salts

the simplest ratio of ionic compounds is called the _____ ____.

formula unit

electrons are transferred/gained with the goal of:

achieveing noble gas electron configuration.

ionic compounds have a _____ structure and are usually solids

crystalline

ions are (weakly/strongly) bonded together

strongly

ionic compounds have ___ melting points

high

what must you do to melt an ionic compound?

all the ionic bonds must be broken in order for the cations and anions to float around

electrical ____ will occur when charges are free to move around

conductivity

(T/F) ionic solids are insulators

true

melted ionic compounds (conduct/don't conduct) electricity

conduct

what must you do to an ionic compound to get them to conduct?

melt them

metal atoms are held together in the solid state by _______ bonds

metallic

metals have a very (weak/strong) hold on their valence electrons

weak

how would you describe a metallic bond?

positive cations floating around in a sea of electrons

metals are:
a) hammered into shape (bend)
b) ductile (can be drawn into wires)
c) purple

a & b

both malleability and ductility explain in terms the ____ of the valence electrons

mobility

(T/F) ionic solids are rough

False- they are brittle (strong repulsion can break them apart)

if a metal is made up of on kind of atom, they are among the simplest ___.

crystals

how many neighbors does a body-centered cubic structure have?

8

what crystalline structure is made up of atoms, ions or molecules that are located on the corners and in the center of the cube?

body-centered cubic

how many neighbors do hexagonal and face-centered cubic structures have?

12

what crystalline structure is made up of atoms, ions, or molecules that are located on the corners and on the faces of the cube?

face-centered cubic

we use lots of metals everyday but few are _____ metals

pure

an ____ is a mixture of two or more elements, and at least one is a metal

alloy

how do you make alloys?

melt a mixture of the ingredients and then cool

what is brass made up of?

Cu and Zn

what is sterling silver made up of?

Ag, Cu

what is steel made up of?

iron, carbon

properties of alloys are often ____ to the original elements, and _____-

superior, stronger

______ alloys are where smaller atoms are fit into the spaces between larger metal atoms

interstitial

the smaller atoms in interstitial alloys act as _____ and keep the larger atoms stable in place

reinforce

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