organs that filter nitrogen wastes from blood to make urine
the system that includes all organs involved in reproduction and in the formation and voidance of urine
a smooth transparent membrane the adheres tightly to the external aspect of the kidney, outside layer, thick connective tissue keeping substances inside.
the cortex of the kidney contains the glomeruli and the convoluted tubules of a nephron
the inner portion of the vertebrate kidney, beneath the renal cortex
Compose the renal medulla and contain the loops of Henle (renal loops), where filtration and reabsorption occur. Conveys urine to the minor calyces.
areas of tissue which segregate and dip inward between the pyramids, columns between renal pyramids
a structure shaped like a funnel in the outlet of the kidney into which urine is discharged before passing into the ureter
cup-shaped ducts carrying urine from the nephrons to the renal pelvis
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
as renal artery enters renal sinus it branches to these
the divisions of segmented arteries. these then branch to fom the interlobar arteries
segmental arteries further divide into these arteries which supply blood to the arcuate arteries
branches from the interlobar arteries at the boundary of the cortex and medulla
branches off of the arcuate arteries which ascend into the cortex, giving off afferent arterioles
blood is drained into these from the capillary networks in the cortex
receives blood that drains from the interlobular veins, and feeds into the inerlobar veins
receives blood that drains from the arcuate veins before feeding it into the renal veins
veins that accompany renal arteries
functional unit of the kidney
small network of capillaries encased in the upper end of a nephron; where the filtration of blood takes place
microscopic tubes in the kidney where urine is formed after filtration
cup-shaped structure of the nephron of a kidney, which encloses the glomerulus and in which filtration takes place.
function as a filter, being permeable to water and small solutes but not to blood cells or large molecules such as plasma proteins.
proximal convoluted tubule, 80% of water absorbed here. Also longest part of the nephron.
loop of Henle
section of the nephron tubule that conserves water and minimizes the volume of urine
distal convoluted tubule, responsible for reabsorption of calcium ions, sodium ions, water
Nephrons located almost entirely in the renal cortex. These nephrons have a reduced loop of Henle.
nephrons with well-developed loops of Henle that extend deeply into the renal medulla
receives urine from nephrons and runs downward through the medullary pyramids, giving them their striped appearance.
The small artery that carries blood toward the capillaries of the glomerulus.
The small artery that carries blood away from the capillaries of the glomerulus.
The network of tiny blood vessels that surrounds the proximal and distal tubules in the kidney
the process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
Water, glucose, amino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood.
products of cellular metabolism that contain nitrogen
the chief solid component of mammalian urine
nitrogenous waste excreted in the urine
an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine
wastes are removed from the blood and secreted into urine
a fluid produced by the kidneys that contains water, urea and other waste materials
the density of a substance relative to the density of water