the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have forseen it.
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts obesrvations
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to the country's whole population.)
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal change of inclusion
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of s atter suggests the strength of the correlation.
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the ___ controls other relevant factors.
an experimental procdeure in which both the researcfh participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a conparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
the experimental factor taht is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the experimental factor-in psychology, the behavior or mental process-that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group oif people and transmitted from one generation to the nexxt.