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The courtroom workgroup includes:

Lawyers

A defense attorney must reveal known cases of ____ according to the Supreme Court case of Nix v. Whiteside.

Client Perjury

Public defenders are:

Appointed by a court administrator

Today's new personal technologies which include cellular telephones with digital cameras threaten courtroom:

Privacy

What term describes an attorney who worked for a law firm?

Private Attorney

The witness has worked as an auto mechanic for 15 years. He testifies that in his opinion the brakes on the car failed because they had been cut. The auto mechanic is:

an expert witness

A court of last resort has ____ jurisdiction.

Appellate

How many states have intermediate appellate courts?

39

A state misdemeanor case is likely to start in:

A trial court of limited jurisdiction

Bob is convicted of theft in a lower court. On appeal, the higher court retires Bob's case.

Bob's appeal is a trial de novo

All of the following are non professionals of the courtroom work group except:

Bailiff

Which U.S. Supreme Court case established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants?

In re Gault

Who is responsible for swearing in witnesses?

Clerk of court

When a trial court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of appellate review of a lower court's decision, it is giving a:

Trial de novo

The dual-court system consists of:

State and federal courts

Thomas Henderson's decisional model describes the lower court process as:

Informal, personal, and decisive

Which of the following is not a responsibility of a bailiff?

Case-flow analysis

Jurisdiction may be thought of as:

Lawful authority

Which of the following federal offices is responsible for administering the federal court system?

Administrative Office of the United States Courts

There are ____ district courts in the federal court system.

94

Bob consigns all of his stock holdings to the court. What type of bail did he post?

Property bond

U.S. v. Hazzard held that bail can be denied when the accused is:

is a danger to the community

The bail decision is made at what stage of the court process?

Arraignment

Maryland v. Craig upheld the use of ____ to shield children who testify at trial.

A closed circuit television

Which of the following statements about grand juries is false?

Defendants can-cross examine prosecution witnesses during a grand jury hearing.

Bail serves two purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:

to prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unnecessarily.

Which of the following represents the order of the steps in a criminal trial?

Trial initiation, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict.

A preliminary hearing is held to:

Determine if there is probable cause to hold the defendant for trial.

Eyewitness testimony and videotaped documentation are examples of what type of evidence?

Direct

Release on recognizance:

Results in the defendant's release based on a guarantee that a defendant provides in writing

When a defendant "stands mute" at her arraignment, she is considered to have entered a:

No-contest plea

What Amendment guarantees the right to an impartial jury?

Sixth

Which of the following is not a type of juror challenge?

Challenges for knowledge

The federal Speedy Trial Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within _____ days of arrest, or when trial does not begin within 70 days after indictment.

30

Approximately what percentage of states uses grand juries as part of the pretrial process?

50%

What type of plea is most similar to a guilty plea?

Nolo contendere

Under the 2005 U.S. Supreme Court cases of U.S. v. Booker and U.S. v. Fanfan the Federal sentencing Guidelines can no longer be considered:

By state judges

The 1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act focuses on:

Federal appeals by death row inmates

In 2004 the U.S. Supreme Court case of Blakely v. Washington effectively invalidated any sentencing schema that allow ____ rather than juries to determine any factor that icnreases criminal sentence.

judges

A presumptive sentencing model includes all of the following except:

Vast judicial discretion

The use of court-ordered community service, home detention, day reporting, drug treatment, psychological counseling, victim-offender programming, or intensive supervision in lieu of other more traditional sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines.

Alternative sentencing

About what percentage of federal sentences are the result of guilty please?

90

What method of execution is used in most states?

Lethal Injection

In 2005 the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Roper v. Simmons held that anyone who committed their crime when younger than 18 could not be sentenced:

To death

Which sentencing goal stressed vengeance?

Retribution

In regard to sentencing

Mitigating

_____ deterrance seeks to reduce the likelihood of recidivism.

Specific

Proportionality demands:

A direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime.

Which of the following intermediate sanctions exposes offenders to a highly regimented environment involving strict discipline. physical training, and hard labor?

Shock incarceration

Which model, describing the duties of probation and parole officers, see clients as "wards" whom officers are expected to control?

Correctional model

Virtually every person incarcerated in jail and 97% of those incarcerated in prison:

Will eventually be released back into society

Bob is sentenced to probation. The conditions of his probation, and all probationers in this jurisdiction, include maintaining employment, posessing no firearm, obeying all laws, and meeting with his probation officer. These are ____ conditions.

General

Who makes the release decision when an offender is sentenced to shock parole?

The parole board

Discretionary parole is granted by:

A parole board

Which of the following sentences is not an example of an intermediate sanction?

Simple probation

Which of the following is not a finding from the 1995 study of the operation of shock incarceration programs in eight states?

The impact on recidivism is significant

The release of an inmate from prison that is determined by a statute or sentencing guidelines and is not decided by a parole board or other authority.

Mandatory release

What type of probation might require face-to-face contacts between the officer and the probationer five times a week, a mandatory curfew, having a job, and submitting to weekly alcohol and drug testing?

Intensive

_____ Incapacitation is a strategy that would imprison almost all serious offenders.

Collective

quakers, penance, and the Pennsylvania style of imprisonment are tied to the ____ era.

Penitentiary

What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to pay to use inmate labor?

Contract System

The current era of imprisonment, called the just deserts era, most closely resembles what earlier era?

The punitive era

Jails that are built and run using the combined resources of a variety of local jurisdictions are called:

Regional jails

____ incapacitation seeks to identify the most dangerous criminals.

Selective

Which early punishment was primarily a strategy of specific deterrence because it made it difficult for individuals to commit future crimes?

Mutilation

The Auburn system of imprisonment became popular during which prison era?

Mass prison

What court is the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction?

Trial courts of general jurisdiction

The movement of a trial from one location to another is a:

Change of Venue

At least one study suggests that some prosecutors have a tendency to be lenient toward female defendants but discriminate against ____ defendants when deciding whether to prosecute.

Minority

The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government is:

The power of judicial review.

The U.S. Supreme Court case of U.S. v. Bagley compels the prosecution to disclose any evidence that the _____ requests.

Defense

Courts that have the authority to review a decision made by a lower court are said to have:

Appellate jurisdiction

What do we call laws that limit the right to bail for certain defendants, usually defendants charged with certain crimes?

Danger Laws

What study tested the effectiveness of the release-on-recognizance alternative?

Manhattan Bail Project

Which of the following is not an alternative to bail?

Parole

What type of bail is like a credit contract?

Unsecured bonds

What federal legislation allows federal judges to deny bail to persons who are thought to be dangerous?

1984 Federal Bail Reform Act

Which of the following is not one of the goals of contemporary sentencing?

Restitution

Which of the following is one of the more rational sentencing goals?

Deterrence

What goal of sentencing is sometimes referred to as the "lock 'em up approach"?

Incapacitation

Restorative justice focuses on crime as harm, and justice as _____ the harm.

Repairing

What type of sentence requires that offenders serve weekends in jail and receive probation supervision during the week?

Mixed sentence

According to a Bureau of Justice Statistics study, about what percentage of people convicted of homicide are placed on probation?

5

Who is recognized as the world's first probation officer?

John Augustus

What era was based on the medical model of corrections?

Treatment

terms like convict bogey and lock psychosis were popular during what prison era?

punitive era

Federal Prison Industries, responsible for prison labor opportunities in the federal prison system, is also called:

UNICOR

A defendant would be entitled to counsel if she were too poor to afford an attorney in each of the following situations except if:

She were charged with a misdemeanor with a maximum penalty of $100 fine.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a trial court of limited jurisdiction?

Cases can be resolved only by jury trials

Which of the following does not occur at the first appearance?

A defendant has the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses

During a trial, the ____ happens before the closing statement, but after the jury selection.

Opening Statement

Three-strikes laws are representative of:

Mandatory sentencing

Who makes federal parole decisions?

United States Parole Commission

Which of the following is a characteristic of jails?

Hold suspects following arrest and pending trial

Cases begin in courts with ____ jurisdiction.

Original

McNabb v. U.S. formally established that a defendant being held in custody has a right to appear in court before a magistrate:

Without necessary delay.

A sentence of 8 to 25 years is an example of a(n):

Indeterminate Sentence

Revocation of probation or parole:

Requires procedural safeguards including a hearing

ADMAX or Adminstrative maximum is the term used by the federal government to denote:

Ultra-high-security prisons.

States that followed the federal court model have how many tiers?

Three

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