children learn their language by imitating adult speech.
children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something grammatical and negatively reinforced when they say something ungrammatical.
hearing a sentence and using it as a model to form other sentences.
the theory that the human species is genetically equipped with a universal grammar, which provides the basic design for all human languages.
speech sounds produced in the first few months after birth that gradually come to include only sounds that occur in the language of the household.
-deaf babies babble with hand gestures.
-utterances seem to convey a more complex message.
-that + N.
-hi + N.
-hi belt- attention is drawn to the belt.
-more/another + N.
-allgone/ no more + N.
-adj. + N.
N + N
-possessive- mommy lunch.
-locative- ball chair.
-agent-object- mommy sock.
-N + V.
V + N
-locative- walk street.
-action-object- put book.
children treat irregular verbs and nouns as if they were regular.
-phase 1: broke, brought. not related to break or bring. separate lexical entries.
-phase 2: breaked, bringed. child constructs past tense rule and attaches regular past tense morpheme to all verbs.
-phase 3: broke, brought. child learns there are exceptions to the rule. irregular forms are related to root forms.
acquisition of inflection
1. present progressive. -ing.
3. plural- regular.
4. irregular past. swim/swam.
6. uncontractible copula. "to be" verb.
-copula- used as predicate N or Adj.
-auxillary- used with a verb.
8. regular past.
9. regular 3rd person singular. walk-s.
10. irregular 3rd person singular.
11. uncontractible auxillary.
-small set of alternatives for a particular phenomenon made available by universal grammar.
-ex. UG specifies that a phrase must have a head and possibly complements; a parameter states whether the complement precedes or follows the head.
bilingual vs. monolingual acquisition
-bilingual and monolingual develop grammar along the same lines.
-bilingual have better metalinguistic awareness.
-bilingual have earlier understanding of the arbitrary relationship between an object and its name.
L2 vs L1 acquisition
-for adults, L2 acquisition takes work and usually is not developed to the level of a native speaker, especially with pronunciation. accent.
-L2 errors may fossilize so that no amount of teaching or correction can undo them.
-Adults vary considerably in their ability to completely acquire an L2. unlike L1.
-fundamental difference hypothesis- L2 and L1 are different acquisition processes.
-they both go through stages and construct grammars.
-many believe they are not fundamentally different.
-founder of sociolinguistics.
-language change can be studied as it is occurring.
-language differences that lead to change often depend on social variables.
-the characteristics of language change are often a matter of frequency of use rather than absolute occurrence or non-occurrence.
-study of NYC "r" in department stores.
"fourth floor"- rs could be dropped.
findings: people with more money have less "r" then poorer people.
-systematic differences in the way groups speak a language.
-can be regional, social, or both.
-dialect diversity develops when the changes that occur in one region or group do not spread.
-regional dialects- a dialect spoken in a specific geographic area that may arise from and is reinforced by that area's integrity.
-the dialect considered to be the norm.
-a language common to speakers of diverse languages that can be used for communication and commerce.
-ex. english is lingua franca of international airline pilots.
-language that arises in contact situation.
-developed for communication between speakers of mutually unintelligible languages.
-simplified code with at least 2 sources.
-usually, grammar from one language and vocab from the other or both.
-often based on one language, the lexifier language.
-arises when a pidgin becomes a native language.
differences in men and women's speech
-women use hedges- "i may be wrong but..." "i think..."
-men cuss more.
-men talk more or talking time is equally split.
-men interrupt more.
-"mhmm." "yeah."- women take this as agreement. men use this as, "i'm listening" (not necessarily agreeing).
-speech appropriate to particular social settings.