Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
This period of time following World War II is where the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers and faced off in an arms race that lasted nearly 50 years.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolitdation.
U.S. program to support the reconstruction of wester Europe after WWII.
European Economic Community
An organization promoting economic unity in Europe, formed in 1957 by consolidation of earlier, more limited agreements. It became the European Union in 1993.
Conflict that began with N. Korea's invasion of S. Korea and that came to involve the United Nations (mostly the U.S.A.) allying with S. Korea and the People's Republic of China allying with N. Korea. Communism v. Democracy
Conflict pitting N. Vietnam and S. Vietnamese Communist guerrillas against the S. Vietnamese government. S. Vietnam was aided by U.S.A.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Brink-of-war confrontation between the U.S.A. and the U.S.S.R. over Soviet missiles placed in Cuba
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland by the Soviet Union and Western European countries.
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was overthrown in 1966.
A nationalist leader who fought to end oppressive laws against Africans; later became the first Prime Minister of Kenya
developing countries that announced their neutrality in the Cold War
term applied to a group of developing countries who were neutral during the Cold War.
Organization formed in 1960 by oil-producing states to promote their collective interest in generating revenue from oil.
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Jammu and Kashmir
an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India
Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.
He was a pro-American dictator of Cuba before Castro. His overthrow led to Castro and communists taking over Cuba, who was now friendly to the Soviets.
Ngo Dinh Diem
South Vietnamese president that was catholic and strongly opposed communism. His poor leadership and corrupt government spelled doom
Stalin's successor as head of the Communist Party; was more open in his dealings with the West and less menacing; also not was paranoid and secretive as Stalin; was said to believe in peaceful coexistence with the West and challenged the west in economic rather than military competition; helped Fidel Castro.
Guinean nationalist leader, tried to mobilize the trade unionist movement and expand it to a broader nationalist movement, did not take the deal from France and said we'd rather live free than live under their patronage.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology