A German school of applied arts of the early twentieth-century. It's aim was to bring people working in architecture, modern technology, and the decorative arts together to learn from one another. The school developed a style that was spare, functional, and geometric. Designs for buildings, chairs, teapots, and many other objects are highly prized today, but when the school was active it was generally unpopular. It was closed by the Nazis, but its members, including Walter Gropius, spread its teachings throughout the world.
1919 - Recruited by Walter Gropius to teach at the Bauhaus, sharing he "form follows function" and "less is more" ideologies from the postwar philosophy.
Diagram of Bauhaus Curriculum
describe basically what you see, and talk about the bauhaus movement compared to the curriculum
i. Had to create a new academy in 1919
ii. Medieval guild system
iii. You advanced on probations
1. First year of probationary period
2. At 4 years you were done
iv. In early years they had no money
v. Classes were held in old art academy
vi. Heat was provided by students carrying coal from a local mine
- German painter, sculptor, designer and choreographer most famous work is "Triadisches Ballett," in which the actors are transfigured from the normal to geometrical shapes in machine age
-saw the puppet as an idealization of the human form - able to move w/perfect machine form
-master of form
-created beginning of avant garde works :painting, design, music, dance
-worked with basic elements of form, color, mvmt, sound, light&space
-created tratic ballet 1922
Theo Van Doesburg
dutch painter, designer, writer who took de stijls name from a magazine and founded De Stijl movement. Reduced furniture to complete abstractions.
-also remember his type face in which he used the non round geometric style of de stijl
ii. More one piece worker
iii. Typographer, collage, designer
iv. Made photograms
for the bauhaus book
viii. Use affordable materials
ix. Anything from around the house
x. 1923 gropis makes a lecture on art and technology-a new unit
A German architect who is considered one of the founders of modern architecture. In 1923, designed what is now the modern door-handle. He was the first director of the Bauhaus (1919 1925), and established the Architect's Collaborative (TAC) in 1945 (an American architectural firm).
Former Bauhaus student, teacher of type/graphic design. Typographic design with functional and constructivist lines. Designed universal type. Reduced alphabet. Omitted capital letters.,
Developed Universal Alphabet (san serif no all caps), desire for simplicity, contrasts of type weight, bars and rules, only 1 hue
The New Typography
-using consistent typefaces
-using weight variations within typefaces to establish hierarchy
-because of amount of visual information readers are seeing they need to be able to get it quickly therefore essential elements are shown in the text
-flush left, rag right
-space is an important design element
-elementary in form without embellishment, e.g. sans-serif
-ultimate function: communication
-rules, bars, and boxes should only be used when necessary, should be used in function of design
-photography preferred to illustration
-black, red, white
i. So wired politically
iii. Then left wing
iv. Gave it national attention
v. The closing of the school by the Nazis gave it international attention
vi. The closing we find a number of influential members going to other countries
vii. The new Bauhaus was created in Chicago in 1937
viii. Lasted until 1971
Paris Exposition 1925
A key moment for Art Deco.
U.S. did not come because if you did you must embrace different forms of modernism, we wer not about that.
You could see nouveau principles in this exhibition of Art Deco.
remember the pavilion.
low relief designs, they broke their own rules.
Greek and other old styles can be seen here.
AD, chest of drawers is compared to female form
relate to the steuben glass company, and tick wall vases. They reopen the nouveau glass company.
think of animal vases, dark blue color
Adolphe Mouron Cassandre
His creations for the Dubonnet wine company were among the first posters designed in a manner that allowed them to be seen by occupants in moving vehicles. His posters are memorable for their innovative graphic solutions and their frequent denotations to such painters as Max Ernst and Pablo Picasso. In addition, he taught graphic design at the École des Arts Décoratifs and then at the École d'Art Graphique.
United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)
Primarily self-taught, curious. Strong, direct visuals. Intuitive placement of elements. Flat planes of color, combined with photography. Visual contrast with informational content.
The Crisis Magazine
founded by W.E.B. Du Bois in 1910. monthly mag of NAACP. still publishes today
Was during the time of the New Negro Movement
New Negro Movement
Fostered a new black cultural Identity in the 1920s and 30s "spiritual coming of age" black community had first chance for group expression and self determination, 1920s US
-encouraged African Americans to become politically and racially conscious; lead to Harlem Renaissance
New Negro Movement Continued
Remember how the covers of the magazine show black people, mostly women, being depicted as white people were at this time. Showed they could be just as classy as whites could.
the label Nazis placed on the avant-garde art. Hitler persecuted many artist confiscated and placed them in a Degenerate Art Show and subjected them to ridicule.
the we can do it poster.
it was like the women posters of the WWII era.
Museum of Modern Art
major exhibit of abstract expressionists -ny replace paris in capital of art
Mies Van Der Rohe
United States architect (born in Germany) who built unornamented steel frame and glass skyscrapers (1886-1969)
-art director at Glamour, Seveneen, Charm, and Mademoiselle
-The first woman admitted to the New York Art Director's Club
-Someone who is noteworthy for being a woman in the industry
sans serif, more geometric in construction, little or no contrast in stroke weight, optically equal strokes, necessary to add lead as serifs missing have less horizontal flow
Paul Rand (1914-96) he was a pioneer of the New York School style and American approach to modern design, He was known for unusaul shape designs on magizine covers.
one of the leading German graphic designers of the 20th century.
• best known for being the lead designer for the 1972 Munich Olympics.
• designed the logo for Lufthansa Airlines
• environmental graphic design
• comprehensive design (signage and more)
important to the development of graphic design as an art form, used minimal pictographs that depicted the essence of the plot, setting a mood with film titles
Used phototypesetting to alter text and created figurative typography. Altered Strokes and overlapped petters. Created Lubalin Graph and Avant Garde.
was an Austrian-born American graphic designer, photographer and art director best known for his art direction of Esquire, Harper's Bazaar, and Show magazines in the 1950s and '60s.
Antonio Boggeri Studio
responsible for modern art in italy
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
-industrial designer from Paris
-design the font Broadway stream line and simplify
-designed coca cola bottle based on May Wests form
• American designers, who worked in and made major contributions to modern architecture and furniture
• The Eames' also conceived and designed a number of landmark exhibitions
• Made fabrics, furniture, and short films
• Exhibition for IBM (benefits of technology)
• Plywood chairs
pioneered Psychodelic Movement, role poster, philmore and Avalon posters, started doing designs for concerts, Jugenstill lettering not legible
International Style, postmodernism
Up 5 Chair (tether red)
The Organic Building (pots on walls)
"We have to answer people's needs"
designed for Olivetti
designed playful pop type writers
studio ceramics, huge instillations pieces
Vanderbyl was among the designers who in the early 1980s established the San Francisco Bay Area as a center of the postmodern movement in graphic design. He established his practice, Vanderbyl Design, in San Francisco in 1973. Over the years his work has expanded from graphic design into the design of furniture, products, showrooms and retail spaces.
Frank O. Gehry
is a Canadian-American Pritzker Prize-winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. His buildings, including his private residence, have become tourist attractions. His works are often cited as being among the most important works of contemporary architecture in the 2010 World Architecture Survey, which led Vanity Fair to label him as "the most important architect of our age"
(born 1948) is a contemporary designer. She is recognized as one of the first designers to embrace computer technology as a reliable tool starting in 1984 and, to a lesser extent, for introducing the New Wave aesthetic to the United States.
Presently, she heads Los Angeles-based design consultancy Made in Space. An insistent innovator, she works at the border zone of the discipline labeled graphic design, at the intersections of video, computer graphics, architecture and environment. She is interested in altering our perceptions of the relationship between two- and three-dimensional space: On the printed page she removes all the coordinates that are normally used to locate the viewer and instead launches the viewer headlong into deep space and saturated color. With buildings, she renders solid walls diaphanous through her application of video imagery in oil paint.
Sociologist; Surfer & Raygun magazine; abstract expressionism- was more about his personal interpretation and expression of what was written, rather than the content itself. He used typography as a fine art form; the finished piece represents a visual interpretation of what the content meant to the artist specifically, on paper and in ink