layers of earth
Crust's depth of ocean and land
5km below ocean to near 20 km below and
Crust's percent of earth's volume and mass?
less then 1 % of volume
.4 % of mass
Where does Moho discontinuity occur?
extends 2900 km
Mantle's percent of volume and mass?
84% of volume
What is the largest shell?
Mantle has three sublayers..
Lower mantle = rigid rocks
Outer Core's depth
Outer Core is made up of
Inner Core radius
dense mass of about 1450 km
What is inner core primarily made up of?
iron/nickel or iron/silicate
Inner core is made of two ?
The two zones combined make up?
15 % of earth's volume
32 % earth's mass
Inner core has Magnetic Field controlled by
Magnetic poles are not the same as...
naturally formed compounds and elements of Earth
Characteristics of Minerals
*found in nature
*specific chemical composition
*contains atoms that arrange in patterns to form crystals
Aggregates of minerals/ mixture
How many minerals make up 95% of composition of crustal rocks?
fewer than 20
petrology characteristic of diff rocks
molten rock beneath the earth's surface
molten rock when it flows onto Earth's surface
Igneous Rocks have a
Igneous have a pyroclatis..
Classification of igneous rocks is based on
mineral composition and texture
Texture of igneous rocks is based on how..
Two types of Igneous Rocks
Plutonic ( intrusive)
Volcanic ( extrusive)
Plutonic Igneous Rock (GRANITE)
*cool's beneath Earth's surface
*Surrounding rocks insulate the magma intrusion,
which makes the cooling process slow
*individual minerals in a plutonic rock can grow large
plutonic igneous rock is
Volcanic Igneous Rock's form
*on Earth's surface
* Cool rapidly
Volcanic Rock is
How are Sedimentary Rocks formed?
cementing agents like silica, calcium carbonate, and iron oxide, precipitate from the water into the pore space in the sediment. The pressure of cementation consolidates and transforms the sediments into sedimentary rocks.
horizontal layers of sedimentary rock
sometimes tilted vertical by earth process
Two subcategories of Sedimentary Rocks
Chemical and Organic Sedimentary Rocks
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
**composed of fragments of preexisting rocks
AKA detrital rocks
Conglomerate: composed of pebble-sized fragments
Example of Clastic Sed, Rock
Chemical and Organic Sedimentary Rock
*formed by precipitation of soluble minerals or
complicated chemical reactions
*Organic sedimentary rocks such as coal form from
remains of dead plants and animals
Example of Chemical and Organic Sed Rock
White rock is
Dark rock is
Metamorphic Rock Formation
once were igneous or sedimentary but formed into metamorphic by HEAT and PRESSURE.
"cooking" of rocks that rearranges the structure of original rock called METAMORPHISM!!!!!!
Example of Metamorphic Rock.. 2
metamorphic rocks with NARROW FOLIATIONS
The 3 Metamorphic Agents
What rock results from the metamorphosis of shale?
What rocks results from the metamorphosis of limestone?
What rock results from the metamorphosis of sandstone?
Relative proportions of the 3 rock types at lithosphere of
SANDSTONE = 32%
LIMESTONE = 22&
SHALE = 45%
Surface configuration of Earth
individual topographic feature of any size
Internal geomorphic Process
originate within Earth and
- increase relief of Land Size
External Geomorphic Process
originate from sources above lithosphere
- oceans, and atmosphere
Decrease relief of Land Surface
"The present is the key to the past"
Process which shaped landscape of past are the same that will shape future.