the proportion of a country's population living in urban places; the movement of people to, and clustering in, towns and cities; when an expanding city absorbs the rural countryside and transforms in into suburbs
Movement of upper and middle class people from the urban core areas to he surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
describes the shifting focus of urbanization in the US away from the CBD toward new loci of economic activity at the urban fringe; have extensive amounts of office retail space, few residential areas and modern buildings
Unrestricted growth in many American urban areas of housing, commercial development, and roads over large expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning.
The rehabilitation of deteriorated, often abandoned, housing of low-income inner-city residents.
A country's largest city-ranking atop the urban hierarchy-most expressive of the national culture and usually (but not always) the capital as well.
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
Literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port city, the hinterland also includes the inland area whose trade flows through that port.
The movement of millions of Americans from northern and northeastern states to the South and Southwest regions (Sunbelt) of the United States.
term used to designate large coalescing supercities that are forming in diverse parts of the world
metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
a group of people who move together onto land outside the city that is owned either by private individuals or the goverment
Homes referred to as such because of their "super size" and similarity in appearance to other such homes; homes often built in place of tear-downs in American suburbs.
the process of legally adding land area to the city
Louis Wirth's theory
in rural areas, you know the other inhabitants, and you might be related to them. In urban ares, you know only a small percentage of the other inhabitants.
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. (Harris and Ullman)
concentric zone model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center. (Burgess)
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD). (Hoyt)
A spatial generalization of the large, late-twentieth-century city in the United States. It is shown to be a widely dispersed, multicentered metropolis consisting of increasingly independent zones or realms, each focused on its own suburban downtown; the only exception is the shrunken central realm, which is focused on the Central Business District (CBD).
the process of subdivision of houses and occupancy by successive waves of lower income people
Rapid change in the racial composition of residential blocks in American cities that occurs when real estate agents and others stir up fears of neighborhood decline after encouraging people of color to move to previously white neighborhoods. In the resulting outmigration, real estate agents profit through the turnover of properties.
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.
Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
social area analysis
Statistical analysis used to identify where people of similar living standards, ethnic background, and life style live within an urban area.