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4 Functions of the nervous system

~Communication and control system- made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves ~Receives information from your environment and from inside your body ~Controls reactions that involve emotion ~Most important system in the body

2 Parts of the nervous system

CNS and PNS

What is CNS?

Central Nervous System; made up of the brain and spinal cord.

What is PNS?

Peripheral Nervous System; connects the CNS to the rest of the body.

Brain

Control center of the body. Directs and coordinates all body processes.

Spinal Cord

Bundle of nerves extending from your brain down to your back.

Nerves

Are controlled automatically by your brain. Cause some muscles to contract.

Neurons

Basic functioning units of the nervous system

Dendrites

Relay electrical messages to the neurons.

Axons

Carries nerve impulses away from the cell body.

Nerve Impulses

Neurons use electrical and chemical energy to send nerve impulses

Synapse

The space between neurons.

3 main parts of the brain

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Medulla

Cerebrum

Largest part of your brain that controls functions including all conscious body movement like running. (When you are awake)

Cerebrum is divided into two halves

Left Half and Right Half

Left Half

controls your ability to speak, use mouth, and think logically.

Right Half

Center for music ability, the creation of art, and expression of emotions

Cerebellum

Second largest [art of the brain that adjusts impulses of motor neurons so motion is not robot-like or jerky.Fine-tunes motion.

Medulla

Smallest portion of brain

Name 3 areas that make up the brain stem

Mid-brain, pons, medulla

Spinal Cord

connects the brain to the PNS

Nerves made up of 2 kinds of nerve fibers

Motor neurons and sensory neurons

Motor Neurons

lead from the spinal cord to the muscles and cause them to contract

Sensory Neurons

Nerves carry sensory information to the spinal cord, which sends it to the brain.

Function of Sensory receptor

functions of a sensory receptor is to take in a stimulus and convert it into a nerve impulse (Ex: Camera flash)

Sound waves

all sound comes from vibration. When an object vibrates it creates pressure waves in the air surrounding it.The pressure waves in the are sound waves.

eardrum

sound waves pass through the ear canal and strike a thin, round, tightly stretched membrane.

Cochlea

fluid-like structure that makes up the inner ear.

Semicircular canals are filled with what?

fluid and motion receptors

Smell

receptors change odor stimuli into nerve impulses, these nerve impulses are carried by the olfactory nerves to the brain.

Taste buds

your tongues sensory receptors

4 different taste sensations

salty, sweet, bitter, sour

4 different sensations you can feel with your skin

detect cold and heat, pressure, pain

Touch and pressure receptors are concentrated where?

On the hands and fingertips

endocrine glands

a ductless gland that releases hormones directly into the blood stream

Hormones

the chemicals made by endocrine glands

Hormones can cause changes in?

other organs and regulate many body activities

How many endocrine glands are in the human body?

9

Where is the pituitary gland located?

at the base of the cerebrum

What has two lobes?

the pituitary gland

What is produced by the pituitary gland?

HGH(human growth hormone)

HGH controls?

how fast your muscles, bones and organs grow.

HGH stores hormones by what part of the brain?

Hypothalamus

what does hypothalamus regulate?

blood pressure

What controls the thyroid gland?

the pituitary gland

what do the thyroid glands produce?

thyroxine

What does thyroxine regulate

body's metabolism

Where is the thyroid located?

at the base of the neck, beneath the larynx next to the trachea

The pancreas is part of what?

endocrine gland

what does the pancreas release?

a hormone called insulin

what does insulin do?

helps transport sugar from the blood into the body's cell.

The pancreas produces what?

glucagon but it's function is opposite of insulin

feedback and control of hormone levels

tightly controlled by a feedback system that automatically turns the endocrine gland on or off.

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