According to Comte's approach, the kind of thinking favored by people such as the inventor of the light bulb, Thomas Edison, becomes widespread during which level of societal development?
method of sociological research that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
said that rich, single, [white] males are the most likely to commit suicide
According to comte's approach, the earliest stage of sociological development; lasted until end of Middle Ages.
According to Comte's approach, the stage of sociological development where people saw society as more of a natural than supernatural phenomenon.
a way of understanding based on science
method of sociological research that focuses on need for social change
method of sociological research that focuses on systematic observations
structural functional approach
approach to sociology; society is a system where parts work together for stability
function of something that is intended, such as college leading to learning
function of something that is unintended, such as college leading to marriage
social conflict approach
approach to sociology; society is an arena of inequality that creates conflict and change
approach to sociology; society is a product of individual's everyday interactions
macro level orientation
Orientation of structural-functional and social-conflict approaches; looks at the forest instead of the trees.
micro level orientation
orientation of symbolic-interaction approach; looks at the trees instead of the forest.
type of culture that includes ideas created by members of a society
type of culture that refers to physical things
hypothesis that language serves as the building blocks of reality; "if you don't have a word for something, it doesn't exist"
rules and expectations of society
widely observed norms that have moral significance, like "you shouldn't murder"
norms for routine or casual behavior, such as table manners
broad, culturally defined guidelines that define desirable behavior
specific statements that people hold to be true
proposed that culture develops with technology; four levels include hunter/gatherer, pastoralism, agricultural, and industrial.
hunting and gathering
oldest technological level; men and women different roles but equal
second technological level, more unequal society
third technological level, unequal society, honor-based system
fourth technological level, reduced inequality
set in motion by invention, discovery, and diffusion
freud's component of personality that includes basic drives opposed by society
freud's component of personality that includes a person's efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking instincts
freud's component of personality that represents the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
most important socializing agent
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
north american cultural (not biological) concept of a carefree time of learning and play in the earliest part of life
people are isolated from the rest of society, supervised, with control, standardization, formal rules and daily routines enforced by administrative staff
a social position that a person holds
all the statuses a person holds at a given time
social position received involuntarily, often at birth. Example : widow, teenager
social position taken on voluntarily. Example: CEO
behavior expected of a person who holds a particular status
all the roles attached to a single status
style of leadership characterized by giving orders. Good in a crisis and motivates the group.
style of leadership characterized by including everyone in decision making. Bonds group, but less successful in a crisis
Laissez faire leadership
Style of leadership where group is allowed to function on its own. Needs a motivated group to work properly, and not effective in promoting group goals.
less stable group of only two people
more stable group of three people
tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues
an organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently