sociology final part one ch 1-5

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scientific stage

According to Comte's approach, the kind of thinking favored by people such as the inventor of the light bulb, Thomas Edison, becomes widespread during which level of societal development?

interpretive sociology

method of sociological research that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world

Durkheim

said that rich, single, [white] males are the most likely to commit suicide

theological stage

According to comte's approach, the earliest stage of sociological development; lasted until end of Middle Ages.

Metaphysical stage

According to Comte's approach, the stage of sociological development where people saw society as more of a natural than supernatural phenomenon.

positivism

a way of understanding based on science

critical sociology

method of sociological research that focuses on need for social change

scientific sociology

method of sociological research that focuses on systematic observations

structural functional approach

approach to sociology; society is a system where parts work together for stability

manifest functions

function of something that is intended, such as college leading to learning

latent functions

function of something that is unintended, such as college leading to marriage

social conflict approach

approach to sociology; society is an arena of inequality that creates conflict and change

symbolic-interaction approach

approach to sociology; society is a product of individual's everyday interactions

macro level orientation

Orientation of structural-functional and social-conflict approaches; looks at the forest instead of the trees.

micro level orientation

orientation of symbolic-interaction approach; looks at the trees instead of the forest.

non-material culture

type of culture that includes ideas created by members of a society

material culture

type of culture that refers to physical things

sapir whorf

hypothesis that language serves as the building blocks of reality; "if you don't have a word for something, it doesn't exist"

norms

rules and expectations of society

mores

widely observed norms that have moral significance, like "you shouldn't murder"

folkways

norms for routine or casual behavior, such as table manners

values

broad, culturally defined guidelines that define desirable behavior

beliefs

specific statements that people hold to be true

lenski

proposed that culture develops with technology; four levels include hunter/gatherer, pastoralism, agricultural, and industrial.

hunting and gathering

oldest technological level; men and women different roles but equal

pastoralism

second technological level, more unequal society

agriculture

third technological level, unequal society, honor-based system

industry

fourth technological level, reduced inequality

cultural change

set in motion by invention, discovery, and diffusion

id

freud's component of personality that includes basic drives opposed by society

ego

freud's component of personality that includes a person's efforts to balance the demands of society and innate pleasure-seeking instincts

super-ego

freud's component of personality that represents the cultural values and norms internalized by an individual

family

most important socializing agent

anticipatory socialization

learning that helps a person achieve a desired position

childhood

north american cultural (not biological) concept of a carefree time of learning and play in the earliest part of life

total institution

people are isolated from the rest of society, supervised, with control, standardization, formal rules and daily routines enforced by administrative staff

status

a social position that a person holds

status set

all the statuses a person holds at a given time

ascribed status

social position received involuntarily, often at birth. Example : widow, teenager

achieved status

social position taken on voluntarily. Example: CEO

role

behavior expected of a person who holds a particular status

role set

all the roles attached to a single status

authoritarian leadership

style of leadership characterized by giving orders. Good in a crisis and motivates the group.

democratic leadership

style of leadership characterized by including everyone in decision making. Bonds group, but less successful in a crisis

Laissez faire leadership

Style of leadership where group is allowed to function on its own. Needs a motivated group to work properly, and not effective in promoting group goals.

dyad

less stable group of only two people

triad

more stable group of three people

groupthink

tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issues

bureaucracy

an organization model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently

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