gland found only in the male with an acidic secretion that contributes to semenal fluid composition
gland alkaline secretion that contributes to semenal fluid composition
spermatogenesis cells,immature sperm
great vestibular ( bartholins) gland
analogous structure in men is the bulbourethral gland
analogous structure to a male's penis
from the gallbladder to common bile duct
rugae of the mucosa expands to increase the surface area of the stomach lining
located on the gastric peat, produce pepsinogen
located on the gastric peat, produce hyrochloric acid
The developing secondary oocyte is pushed to one side of the follicle and is surrounded by a capsule of several layers of granulosa called
Has one layer of zona pellucida around it. That one thin layer makes it easy to identify on the slide when coupled with the primary oocyte centalized within it
Develop into primary follicles
Develops from the remainder of the ruptured follicle after ovulation and begins to produce both estrogen and progesterone
The mature follicle ruptures releasing the secondary oocyte into the uterine tube
Interstitial cells of the seminephorous tubules
Found in the nephron, these cappillaries ae highly porous and allow large amounts of solute-rich virtually protein free fluid filtrate to pass from the blood into the glomerular capsule
Larger in diameter than the efferent, this is the path into the glomerus for blood to be filtered. The elevated blood pressure brought on by the large diameter into the glomerulus helps to force fluid out of the blood stream and into the nephron therefore filtering the blood
Carry filtered blood away from the glomerulus. More narrow than the afferent
Forces fluid from the renal tubule into the pertubular capillaries
Forces fluid back into the renal tubule
Is not urine! It is the same as blood plasma without protein
Is composed of 2 layers of smooth muscle and 1 layer of transitional epithelium
Has 3 regions:
Large glands located anterior to the ear and ducting into the mouth over the second upper molar through the parotid duct.
- SECRETION: SEROUS
-Located along the medial aspect of the mandibular body in the floor of the mouth ducting under the tongue to the base of the lingual frenulum.
-Is a mixed gland SECRETION: MUCIN AND SEROUS
Small glands located most anteriorly in the floor of tge mouth and emptyimg under tge tongue via several small ducts.
is synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrates.
Not found in deciduous teeth, grinding
Holds mature sperm, is made up of pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Glomerular filtration rate
The measurement of how well the kidneys are processing wastes and determines the stage of chronic renal disease
the layer of DIGESTIVE tract consisting of a THIN layer of AREOLOR tissue topped by SIMPLE SQUAMOUS MESOTHELIUM is known as the:
is a FIBROUS CONNECTIVE tissue layer SURROUNDING the PHARNYX, most of the ESOPHAGUS and RECTUM.
is the hydrolysis of glycogen, releasing glucose, conversion occurs when blood sugar is low
PROXIMAL CONVULUTED TUBULE
tubular fluid moves FROM the ____ tubule INTO the NEPHRON LOOP
the structural unit that consists of glomerulus enclosed in a glomerular capsule is called a
recieve urine from several nephrons but are not part of a nephron
renal tubule and renal corpuscle
are components of a nephron
osmosis, passive transport, and filtration
are some of the various methods water moves across semipermeable membranes
Capillary hydrostatic pressure (blood pressure)
Is the main force behind filtration in glomeruli
less than pH 7.35
a value for blood pH that would be classified as acidosis
is a condition where the blood has a pH of 7.46 or higher is called :
causes of edema include
blocked lymphatic vessels, hypoproteinemia
in the capillaries would cause a decrease in the quantity of tissue fluid
causes decreased osmotic pressure in the blood, which increases fluid movement (into the tissues) in the capillaries
osmosis and filtration
are two ways water moves passively ( no ATP required)
If the osmolarity of the tissue fluid rises, waer moves____ the cells; if it falls water movers ____ the cells
cations that are important in the body include
sodium, magnesium, potassium; calcium and hydrogen ions
is an anion
the part of the brain that provides the sensation of thirst is:
the body is in electrolyte balance when:
the amount of electrolytes gained equals the amount lost
extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid
the two major fluid compartments in the body
When the quantity of water in multiple fluid compartments is balanced and there is no further net movement of water, we say that _______ has been reached
usually refers to many body systems being in equillibrium
the primary way the body regulates water loss is through changing the volume of :
The physical breakdown of food into smaller particles (by processes such as chewing and segmentation)is known as
The four lobes of the liver
quadrate lobe, right lobe, left loabe, caudate lobe
a part of the larynx , which is near the laryngopharynx
is a structure associated with the oropharynx
The Bile Duct
is formed as the common hepatic duct joins the cystic duct
Gastric glands secrete
digestive enzymes, hydrochloric acid and mucus
The ____ ____ runs lengthwise through the pancreas, joining the bile duct at the hepatopancreatic ampulla
Within the muscular layer of the alimentary canal, the _____ layer is most superficial
The layer of the digestive tract consisting of a thin layer of areolar tissue topped by simple squamous mesothelium is known as____
The _____ is a thick layer of connecgtive tissue between the mucosa and the submucosa
stimulates growth of alveolar tissue
breasts begin producing milk as
placental hormones decrease
The hormone _____ allows milk to be ejected from the nipples
Individuals that live to 100 can probably attribute their longevity primarily to____
iron is essential to the ability of hemoglobin and myoglobin to bind to _____
the four major types of ___ chylomicrons, HDLs, LDLs and VLDLs.
examples of disaccharides are
maltos, sucrose and lactose
Excess glucose beyond what is stored as glycogen usually reacts to form ____ and is stored in adipose tissue
secreted by parietal cells in the fundus of the stomach , produces the sensation of hunger and stimulates the hypothalamus to secrete growth hormone releasing hormone.
is a mineral that is key structural component of phosolipids, ATP cAMP, GTP and creatine phosphate
are tiny droplets with a core of cholesterol and triglycerides and a coating of proteins and phospholipis and include chylomicrons, HDLs,LDLs , and VLDLs
Triglycerides containing fatting acids with no double bonds within their carbon chains are examples of ____ ___
The type of fat that is found predominately in nuts, seeds, and most vegetable oils is called ___ ___ , based on the double bonds found in the carbon chains of fatty acids.
is the vitamin necessary for normal vision, synthesis of mucoproteins, development of teeth and bones, and maintenance of epithelial cells in skin
is necessary for the formation of several liver proteins, including prothrombin, that are needed for blood clotting
Glycogen releases glucose when it is broken down by the process of
bones and teeth
Most of the phosphorus in the body is found in
glycogenolysis is stimulated by the hormones ____ , norepinephrine and epinephrine; which all function to increase blood glucose concentration
In an adult heart, there is a depression where the foramen ovale used to be . This depression is called the ____ ____.
ductus venosus, ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale
are all fetal structures no longer needed once the baby is born and is breathing on their own
is a symptom that would present with patent ductus arteriosus
the structure that allows gas, nutrient and waste exchange between the embryo or fetus and the mother is called the ____.
degenerative changes that occur with age are known as _____.
hCG chorionic gonadotropin
the hormone that induces the corpus luteum to grow, rather than degenerate into a corpus albicans
Follicle stimulating hormone
stimulates a follicle to grow in the first half of the ovarian cycle
blood vessel and nerves
are located in the medulla of the ovary
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH)
-risk factors for BPH may include a fatty diet
-an early sign of BPH may be dribbling after urination
-It may cause a feeling of urge to urinate
-90% of men over age seventy have BPH
The region of the sperm cell that has many mitochondria organized in a spiral is called the :
the inner portion of the ovary that contains the large arteries and veins is the ____.
a process by which eggs are fertilized in a dish, in a lab, then implanted into a uterus, is called ___ ___ fertilization.
The birth control method that requires abstinence from sexual intercourse twod days before and one day after ovulations is called the _____ ______.
The hypothalamus has specialized groups of neurons called ____________ that respond to angiotensin II and to rising osmolarity of the ECF.
______ is the buffering system that responds most rapidly
In the lungs, the bicarbonate buffer system recation shifts to the left because oxyhemoglobin releases _____ ions.
inhibiting the release of ADH
Alcohol increases urine output by:
Respiratory system and the renals system
are two types of PHYSIOLOGICAL buffer systems
MOISTEN THE MOUTH AND DISTEND THE STOMACH
the ONLY way to quench thirst is to drink enough water to :
*****Increasing the breathing rate ____ carbon dioxide levels of body fluids adn therefore ____ pH****
The inflammation reaction includes the release of a chemical called ______ from damaged cells; this chemical causes capillaries to become leaky and results in edema.
the percent of total water intake that comes from by products of metabolism is _____%
The blood and tissue fluid normally have a pH of ___ to 7.45.
____has a higher concentration of sodium than intracellular fluid
is a condition in which there are higher than normal levels of potassium in the blood
could be caused by cancer or by hyperparathyroidism
is them most abundant cation in the ECF
INCREASED HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF LYMPH DUE TO LYMPH BACK UP CAUSES
DECREASED MOVEMENT OF INTERSTITIAL FLUID INTO LYMPHATIC VESSELS
If plasma protein concentration decreases,
interstitial fluid movement into the venule end of capillaries will decrease, resulting in EDEMA
is the result of low blood levels of sodium
The molar concentration of dissolved solutes is the solution's :
can be caused by dehydration, due to a decrease in sweating
Symptoms of DEHYDRATION include
decreased urination and decreased sweating
An ACID-BASE BUFFER System
absorbs excess acids adn bases to stabilize the pH of a solution
When a cell is placed into a hypertonic solution, will occur until equillibrium is reached .