What is the Dome of the Rock? Why is the Dome of the Rock so important?
A mosque that was used for Muslim Judaism and Christianity because it was in Jerusalem
Judaism begins to focus on what two new ideals? Describe them.
Messianic- anointed one who would lead world to peace
Apocalypse- end of the world; God would bring judgment
Describe the conflict that emerged between the Jews and Romans.
Jews want to purify land, kick out anyone who isn't jewish, there are a lot of Romans coming in (outsiders) Romans put Herod in Jerusalem in hopes to keep Jews from rebelling, they build Herod's temple. Jews rebel against Romans. Romans destroy city and burn the temple to the ground.
What were the three main philosophical sects that arose in Judaism?
Pharisees- scribal group associated with the masses (everyday people)
Focused on writing, interpretation, ect
Sadducees- priests and high priest associated with the aristocracy
Essenes- sect of conservatives who moved to Qumran
Why is 70 AD an important date in Jewish history?
The Romans sacked Jerusalem and destroyed the Temple
What books of the Bible record the birth of Jesus?
What are the Gospels?
Mathew, Mark, Luke, John and Gospel: narrate Jesus' life. Gospel = good news
Why/how was early Christianity viewed as a part of Judaism?
Most viewed Christianity as a sect of Jewish faith; Christians came from Jewish
Why were symbols and icons used in Christianity? Which ones were used?
the Old Testament prefigure of Jesus
view of typology an examples of Christ
Rarity in very early Christian ART, most is from 3rd and 4th century
These representations usually had a much larger symbolic meaning to the Christians
The Good Shepherd
Marble 300 AD
Before Christianity is legalized they develop symbols
Used Greek letters
Icons used for Christ would be both literal and figurative and appeared in art and literature
Alpha (beginning) I
and Omega (end) X
and Chi Rho (beginning and end together as one) X with P in it
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus 359 AD
Why is the "Jesus fish" symbolic in Christianity?
Fisher of men. Became a symbol for all christians
How was Rome becoming Christian?
Most of the population was becoming christian because it was now allowed, which made the city become christian.
What was the Edict of Milan?
Granted religious freedom to all and ended persecution of christians in rome
What city did Constantine found? When?
Constantinople in 324
What was the goal at the Council of Nicaea? What was created there?
Nicene creed was made; foundation of Christian beliefs, established universal church (catholic=universal) to give christianity a prescribed set of beliefs. first world wide council of church leaders.
What was Augustine's view on human understanding?
Humans are only capable of understanding things because of God
Narthex - entrance hall
Transept - transverse aisle
Latin Cross - long arm, nave, 3 short arms
Clerestory - high windows which lit the church
Central Plan- circular, open
What is syncretism? How is it seen in early church design?
interwoven Greek and Roman mythic traditions
Why is 476 important an important date in history?
Rome fell to the Germanic tribes in 476 AD
What city would now be the center of Christianity?
What did Emperor Justinian build to show his dedication to Constantinople?
Why is the Hagia Sophia so unique?
Created by two mathematicians, completely original design: giant dome on a square base
What debate emerged over icons? What were the two sides?
New emperor Leo III believed that God prohibited religious images in the 10
commandments and banned images. Iconoclasm- the practice of destroying religious images
How did Justinian use San Vitale as propaganda?
His clergy oversaw its construction. Him and his wife were pained on the walls to illustrate the political and spiritual authority.
Why is 570 an important date for the Muslim faith?
Muhammad was born
What is the core of the Muslim faith?
Submission to God
Know and describe the Five Pillars Faith for Islam.
Shahadah - the creed; one God
Prayer 5x a day facing Mecca
Giving to the needy
Fasting during Ramadan
Hajj - pilgrimage to mecca
What is the Qur'an?
Work of poetry with use of art and calligraphy; Muslim book
What is calligraphy? How was it used in the Muslim faith?
Written from left to right, entirely cursive or flowing; its what the Qu'ran is written in
What is the Kaaba? Why is it important to Muslims?
Center of the haram mosque in Mecca; box that shows God's power
A report of saying of Muhammad and anecdotes about his life
Originally handed down orally
Written down about 100 years after Muhammad's death
622 - Muhammad was forced to flee Mecca from polytheistic leaders
Hijra - the "emigration" (part of the Hajj)
"holy war" or self-control over human appetites
Originally where Muhammad's followers meet to pray and listen to a sermon
"Place of prostration"
many - columned covered area, required feature in mosques
a wall shows the direction of Mecca (and Kaaba)
Why/how did Islam spread so quickly?
Caliphs- leaders that assumed political and religious authority; it spread quickly because most people in these areas were of same linguistic and ethnic background as muslims; it appealed to people both as a religion and social organization
Did Spain accept Islam? How? What made it unique?
Spain remained true to its won traditions while absorbing Muslim religion. Muslim spain thrived intellectually and religious tolerance was extended
Where did Buddhism emerge?
What are the Four Noble Truths?
1.Life is suffering
2.The cause of suffering is ignorance (lack of knowledge)
3.Ignorance can be overcome and eliminated
4.Enlightenment can be achieved by the Eightfold Path
How did Buddhism spread?
Buddhist monks traveled and Buddhism would spread
After the fall of the Han Dynasty, Buddhism offered an ethical system based in each person's duty and was compatible with Daosim.
Chinese rulers began to order images of Buddha
Why was Buddha not represented in art for a long time? What did Buddha look like in artistic representation?
At first one could not represent the Buddha because he was in nirvana
By the 4th century he began to be represented in human form with a halo and a third eye on his forehead with elongated ears
What was important about the Tang Dynasty? The City of Chang'an?
Tang Dynasty was a period of peace and prosperity, it was largest and most organized gvt in the world; valued education.
The city of Chang'an was the city of enduring peace, largest city in the world, showed tang's commitment to social order.