The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938.
-1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
-Hitler really took note of the passive nature of Great Britain and France
Policy by which Czechoslovakia, Great Britain and France agreed to Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland in agreement for not taking any additional Czech territory
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
-Stalin and Hitler's non aggression pact
- Also agreed to attack Poland together.
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences
Two meetings held by the "Big Three": Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the United States, Winston Churchill of Great Britain, and Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union. The first was held during World War II in February of 1945 and planned how Germany would be divided after the imminent allied victory. The second was held in July of 1945 when Herbert Hoover replaced FDR, who had passed away. It officially divided Germany into four zones: the French, the British, the American and the Soviet. This meeting also set up a court system to try Nazi officials for war crimes and crimes against humanity and Germany once again had to pay reparations to the victors.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation. It replaced the League of Nations.
Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
Truman Doctrine: Containment
Stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. Stopping the spread of the sphere of communist influence.
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The countries included were: USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
He emerged as the Soviet Unions new leader after Stalin's death in 1953. He de-Stalinized, eased censorship, closed prison camps, and called for a "peaceful existence" with the west.
Leonid Brezhnev : Brezhnev Doctrine
The USSR Communist Party leader that replaced Khrushchev. He played a significant part in the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 (ending in the Prague Spring). His doctrine justified the invasion of Czechoslovakia and was meant to transform communist governments to capitalist democracy (independence of communist parties were not allowed).
A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
French word meaning an easing of tensions between the world's superpowers during the Cold War.
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union.
A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise (market based economy and society).
Political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule (India's struggle for independence from Great Britain through passive resistance and civil disobedience).
Was an artistic and literary movement of the early 20th century that championed experimentation, technicality, primitivism, impersonalism, aestheticism, and intellectualism. It was a deliberate departure from tradition.
Post-World War II intellectual movement and cultural attitude focusing on cultural pluralism and release from the confines and ideology of Western high culture.
A system in which the government takes responsibility for its citizen's social and economic needs. Eg. Programs in public health, public housing, pensions and unemployment compensation, etc.
2nd Wave Feminism: Simone de Beauvoir
French author of "The Second Sex". She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement (1960's and 1970's) - focus on rights and issues of equality; sought to end discrimination towards women.
Existentialism : Jean-Paul Sartre
A philosopher and writer who defended and helped to develop the ideals Existentialism. He focused on humans and what it means to be human. He believed that humans have no absolute purpose or meaning and that everything that is a part of human life is our own creation. Humans control and make their own density through our different decisions.
The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyal nuclear power plant in Ukraine which was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators. It was a direct consequence of Cold War isolation and the resulting lack of any safety culture.
A Catholic Council held between 1962 and 1965 to modernize some aspects of church teachings (such as condemnation of Jews), to update liturgy, and to promote cooperation among the faiths.
Treaty of Rome : EEC
This treaty established a consortium of six European countries established to promote free trade and economic cooperation amongst its members. Since its founding in 1957, its membership and activities have expanded. (A.K.A. Europena Economic Community)
Treaty of Maastricht : European Union
The agreement among the members of the European community to have a closer alliance, including the use of common passports and eventually the development of a common currency; by the terms of the European Union was created. Its members have political ties through the European parliament as well as long-standing common economic, legal, and business mechanisms.
Prime minister of Great Britain during the second world war who was responsible for fending off Hitler's blitzkrieg of London.
the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group. Often used when referring to the NAZIS and the Jews.