a need or desire that serves to energize or direct behavior
hunger, thirst, need to sleep, drive to reproduce
desire to obtain learned reinforcers
olds and milner
found that rats would press a bar to send a pulse into certain areas of the brain and limbic system
limbic system must play role in motivation and dopamine must be related to reward
conclusions from olds and milner's experiments
the learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what's necessary for survival
there's an optimum level of arousal (alertness) at which performance is optimal, and correlates with nervous system activity
tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance. high levels of arousal for easy tasks and low levels for difficult tasks are preferred
the opponent process theory
we aren't motivated until we encounter pleasurable stimuli. we are motivated to seek that stimuli, after which an opposing motivational force brings us back toward the baseline. the emotional effects wear off, but not the opponent process, so we habituate to the stimulus.
the drive-reduction theory
psychological needs put stress on the body and we are motivated to relieve this stress.
the state of regulatory equilibrium
the target level of anything we need
lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
sends messages to brain to eat less, excercise more
tells brain to eat more and drink
released in response to a buildup of fat cells, which is interpreted in the hypothalamus
as insulin rises, glucose levels lower. to restore glucostatic balance, a person must eat something
fat is the measured and controlled substance in the body that regulates hunger.
individual being 15% below ideal body weight. more common in females.
distorted body image
periods of binging and purging
causes production of sexual hormones. triggered by hypothalamus.
male sex hormone
female sex hormone
biological theory of motivation
behavior is based on instinct and genetic programming
humanistic theory of motivation
first level of maslow's hierarchy. food, drink, shelter, sex.
safety and security needs
second level of maslow's hierarchy. feel safe from harm.
third level of maslow's hierarchy. social interaction and fulfillment.
fourth level of maslow's hierarchy. fame, recognition.
fifth level of maslow's hierarchy. when people creatively and meaningfully fulfill their own potential.
divide motivating factors into intrinsic and extrinsic.
comes from within. need for self-determination, self-efficacy.
comes from the outside world.
a cognitive theorist. believed that although motivation is rooted in biology, individual and environmental differences cause motivations and needs to be expressed in different ways. human needs can be broken down into 20 specific types.
social theory of motivation
people are motivated to reduce tension, so they'll change their attitude to fit their behavioral pattern if they believe they are in control.
came up with 4 types of conflics of motives
one has to decide between two desirable options
one must decide between two undesirable options
only one choice is presented, but it's partly good, partly bad.
many options are available, but each have positives and negatives.
environmental stimuli can cause physiological changes and responses.
physiological response to emotion and the experience of emotion occur simultaneously in response to emotion-provoking stimulus. meassage from thalamus to automatic and cerebral cortex at the same time.
2 factor theory
physical arousal, then how we label arousal determine experience of emotion.
environmental stimuli can cause physiological changes and responses. emotion is a result of physiological change. it's incorrect.
causes a person to feel challenged or endangered
events that cause stress
challenges that occur over a long period of time, can have health implications
general adaptation syndrome
synonym for fight or flight response
first stage of general adaptation syndrome
arousal of sympathetic nervous system. hormones released.
what the alarm stage causes.
the second stage of general adaptation syndrome
action of parasympathetic rebound. reduces arousal state.
what the resistance stage causes.
if the stressor doesn't stop, this stage occurs. tissues can't be repaired.
created a cognitive theory about stress response
in lazarus's theory, the individual judges whether it's a stressor.
in lazarus's theory, its the assessment of whether the person can handle the stress.
competitiveness, time urgency, elevated feelings of anger, hostility. respond quickly, aggressively to stress. get in stressful situations.
low level of competitiveness, no time urgency, easy-going attitude. get stressed slowly.
look at the devlopment throughout the entire life span
typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people
to compare groups of people on normative characteristics
for individual developmental process. follows a small group of people over a long period of time.
emphasize the role of genetically programmed growth on the body, especially nervous system.
emphasize learning as the source of complex behaviors, cognition
the idea that development is gradual
the idea that devleopment occurs in stages
a time during which a skill must develop, or else it won't be developed at all.
emphasizes the needs of society above the needs of the individual
patterns of behavior that occur in a fixed sequence
when physical development begins
first stage. zygote undergoes cell division, 64 cells, implants in uterine wall
second stage. organ formation, lasts until beginning of third month.
third stage. sexual differentiation occurs, movement begins.
environmental agents that harm the fetus.
triggered by placing something in baby's mouth
automatic grabbing triggered by placing something in baby's hands
toes splay out when bottom of foot is stroked
head-turning or rooting reflex
response elicited when touching baby's cheek
the splaying of the limbs when loud noises occur
baby adjusts to changes in the surroundings
what babies love to look at
stereotyped ingestive responses
sucking, smacking lips for sweetness. crying, sticking tongue out for sour or bitter tasts. evolutionary background.
gross motor skills and fine motor skills develop
growth spurts in height and weight. development of secondary sex characteristics. menstruation in girls, nocturnal emission in boys.
development of learning, memory, reasoning, problem-solving skills
the attempt to balance environmental characteristics with the cognitive structures the child brings to the situation
incorporating new ideas into existing schemas
mental representational model
modifying the schema to include new information
created equilibration theory, identified stages of development. biology > environment.
a child acts on objects and begins to develop schemas, becomes goal-oriented. 1-2 years.
develops during sensorimotor stage. the knowledge that objects exist when they are outside of view.
development of language and symbolic thinking. egocentrism, artificialism, animism. 2-7 years.
the belief that all things are human made
the belief that everything is alive
concrete operational stage
able to access schemas, perform mental operations, reversibility, conservation. 7-11 years.
the ability to perform a mental operation, then switch thinking back to a starting point.
formal operational stage
able to understand abstractions, metacognition, hypothetical reasoning.
the ability to solve problems without direct experience in dealing with the problem.
the ability to recognize and adapt one's own cognitive processes.
theory of mind
children recognize that other people see the world differently than they do.
environment > biology. internalization, development levels.
the abosportion of knowledge into the self from environmental and social contexts.
actual development level
the level of ability a child displays
potential development level
the ability the child is capable of
ability depends on environmental factors
why actual development level rarely equals potential development level
the ability to think in terms of abstract concepts and symbolic relationships
the specific knowledge of facts and information
perspective or knowledge accumulated over time. insight into life situations and conditions that results in good judgments.
the development of the ability to interact with others and with the social structures in which we live
came up with stages of psychosocial development. his was the first theory to assert that development is a life-span process.
trust v mistrust
during 1st year. infants decide whether the world is friendly or hostile. outcome: faith and hopefulness.
autonomy v shame and doubt
ages 1-3. child develops sense of control over bodily function and environments. outcome: toilet training, walking etc.
initiative v guilt
ages 3-6. children learn to assert themselves socially without overstepping bounds. outcome: sense of purpose.
industry v inferiority
ages 6-12. kids gain a sense of pride in their work, learn what they're capable of. outcome: sense of competence.
identity v role confusion
adolescents. search for identity. outcome: sense of fidelity (truthfulness to one's self)
intimacy v isolation
early adulthood. attempt to form lasting relationships. outcome: learning how to love in a mature way.
generativity v stagnation
middle adulthood. struggle to be productive in both career and home. outcome: feeling of generativity, contribution to next generation.
integrity v despair
old age. struggle to come to terms with one's life. outcome: wisdom, accepting death.
showed that rhesus monkey infants need comfort and security as much as food.
the tendency to prefer specific familiar individuals over others.
considered the father of attachment theory. pioneered view that early experiences affect later behavior.
studied infant attachment using strange situation, found 3 attachment patterns.
a parent leaves a child with a stranger, then returns.
the child uses the parent for support. most common type of attachment.
the child doesn't know whether parent will be supportive. 7-15% of population.
child doesn't use the parent for support. rare situation.
child behaves erratically. attachment style associated with abuse.
parents expect perfect behavior without explanation. kids become socially withdrawn, can't make decisions, not curious.
parents expect compliance to rules but explain the rules, are open to negotiation. set limits, give punishments, forgive. kids are confidant, articulate.
parents don't set boundaries. are more like friends.
theorist about dealing with death and dying. denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance.
developed the most influential theory of moral development, expanded on piaget's theory.
preconventional morality (stage 1)
kohlberg's level 1. age 7-10. avoiding punishment and receiving rewards.
preconventional morality (stage 2)
kohlberg's level 1. age 7-10. children make judgments by evaluating the benefit for themselves.
conventional morality (stage 3)
kohlberg's level 2. child tries to live up to expectations set by authority figures.
conventional morality (stage 4)
kohlberg's level 2. young teenagers develop consciences.
conventional morality definition
the internalization of society's rules and morals.
postconventional morality (stage 5)
kohlberg's level 3. 16+ internal set of values. balance must be struck by individual rights and social contracts.
postconventional morality (stage 6)
kohlberg's level 3. highest stage of moral development. universal principles of justice outweigh societal rules and person acts accordingly.
revised kohlberg's theory. theory places the development of caring relationships as central to moral progress.
the development of awareness of one's own sexuality, identifying with a gender.
the awareness that one is a boy or a girl. usually reached by 2 or 3.
the acquisition of sex-related roles. occurs in ages 2-7.
gender is an unchangable characteristic, not defined by clothes etc. ages 2-7.
the blurring of the lines between stereotypical male and female roles in society.
freud's oral stage
infants-2 yr olds. pleasure comes from sucking.
freud's anal stage
2-4. child derives pleasure from defecation.
freud's phallic stage
4-middle childhood. child discovers that genital stimulation is pleasurable.
freud's latency period
childhood-adolescence. sexual issues are suppressed.
freud's genital stage
early adulthood. the establishment of standard heterosexual relationships.
boy's desire for the mother and fear of the father.
girl's desire for father and fear of the mother.
the inadequate resolution of one of freud's stages.
bandura's opinions about development
sexual roles are often acquired by environmental factors.