Criminal Justice

128 terms by hort7919

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Three-strikes laws are representative of:

mandatory sentencing

In regard to sentencing, cooperating with the authorities, good character, and no prior record are examples of _______ factors

mitigating

what kind of parole hearing determines whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his or her parole

revocation hearing

According to the National Institute of Corrections _____ percent of women entering prisons are mothers.

80%

Proportionally demands

A direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime

Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve time in a local jail before a period of supervised probation?

split sentence

According to the National Institute for corrections the profile for a female prisoner in American would include the following characteristics:

survivor of a physical or sexual abuse

Prison ______ is the slang characteristic of prison subcultures and prison life

argot

_____is a court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community

restitution

What world describes aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations in male prison?

Wolf

Who created the Irish system of imprisonment?

Sir Walter Crofton

Eye witness testimony and videotaped documentation are examples of what kind of evidence?

direct

What percent of inmates successfully complete parole?

44%

The Pennsylvania style of imprisonment was characterized by:

solitary confinement and individual cells

The dual-court system consists of:

state and federal courts

Which US supreme court case established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants?

In Re Gault

The primary purpose of probation has always been ______

rehabilitation

What percentage of death row inmates are African-American?

42%

Prison language is called:

prison argot

Which is NOT a type of juror challenge?

Change for knowledge

There is/are ______ district court(s) in the federal court system

94

_____capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to handle

Design

What amendment guarantees the right to an impartial jury?

6th

Which of the following sentences is a prison reentry strategy?

Parole

Weapons, tire tracks, and fingerprints are what type of evidence?

Real evidence

What is the name of the jail-management strategy that joins popular/unit structure with a participative, proactive management philosophy?

direct supervision

The majority of offenders in federal institutions have been convicted of:

drug offenses

A preliminary hearing is held to:

determine if there is a probable cause to hold the defendant for trial

Factors that increase the degree of culpability for an offender are known as:

aggravating circumstances

Release on recognizance:

results in the defendants release based on a guarantee that a defendant provides in writing

A(n) _____ is a formalized argument, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about conditions of their confinement

grievance procedure

After Bob is convicted of murder in a trial court he goes to a higher court and asks that court to review the decision to convict him. The higher court:

has appellate jurisdiction

Suits to formally request a hearing to determine the lawfulness of imprisonment are generally called:

writs of habeas corpus

which of the following does NOT occur at the first appearance?

A defendant had the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses

Revocation of probation or parole:

requires procedural safeguards including a hearing3

A motion for _____ asks the court to move the trial to another jurisdiction

change of venue

Bail serves 2 purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:

the prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unneccessarily

The socialization of inmates into the prison subcultures is called:

prisonization

A court of last resort has ______ jurisdiction

appellate

US vs. Hazzard held that bail can be denied when the accused is:

a danger to the community

Who is responsible for summoning members of the public for jury duty and subpoenaing witnesses for the prosecution and the defense

the clerk of court

Pell vs. Procunier applied the ____ test to the corrections arena, attempting to weigh the rights of the individual against the authority of the state

balancing

What do we call laws that limit the right to bail for certain defendants changed with certain crimes

danger laws

What era was based on the medical model of corrections

treatment

_______ justice is a sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again"

restorative

Cases begin in courts _______ jurisdiction

original

Maryland vs. Craig upheld the use of ______ to shield children who testify at trail

a curtain

These are considered professions in the courtroom except:

A victim

What is the primary sentencing tool of the just dessert's model

imprisonment

______ procedures may include a presentance investigation and dispute-settlement proceedings

intake

States that followed the federal court model have how may tiers?

3

The fed court system is comprised of the US ______ courts, US courts of appeal, and the supreme court

district

A state misdemeanor case is likely to start in:

a trail court of limited jurisdiction

A ______ institution is an enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their lives daily.

total

Mempa vs. Ray held that a probationer should have the opportunity for ______ before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed

council

The US supreme court case Marbury vs. Madison established the courts authority as the _______ of the US constitution

final interpreter

The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government is:

the power of judicial review

The examination of a convicted offender's background prior to sentencing

presentence investigation

What type of bail is like a credit contract

unsecured bonds

Bob consigns all of his stock holdings to the court. What type of bail did he post

property bond

What federal law reduced the number of suits brought by state prisoners in federal courts

prison Litigation reform

Morrissey vs. Brewer provides procedural safeguards to parolees at _____ hearing

revocation

Erving Goffman used what term to describe places where the same people work, recreate, worship, eat and sleep together

total insitutions

______ capacity is the number of inmates that a facility can effectively accommodate based on an appraisal of the institution's staff, programs, and services

Operational

Virtually every person in jail and 97% of those incarcerated in prison:

will eventually be released back into society

The California Department of Corrections had an unwritten policy of racially segregated prisoners in order to prevent racial violence. In 2005 the US supreme Court reviewed that policy and held that it:

was unconstitutional

Who is recognized as the worlds first probation officer

John Augustus

Wolf vs. McDonnell provided inmates with:

appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them

What early correctional leader developed a system of marks through with prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom?

Captain Alexander Maconchie

What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to pay to use inmate labor?

contract system

A dormitory-like setting, private rooms, and unarmed correctional officers are characteristics of ______ security institutions

minimum

________ is the official suspension of criminal or juvenile proceedings against an alleged offender at any point after a recorded justice system intake, but before the entering of a judgement, and referral of the offender to a treatment or care program

diversion

Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of:

community-based corrections

Rated, operation, and design are three types of prison ______

capacities

What court is the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction

trial courts of general jurisdiction

The federal Speedy Trail Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within ______ days of arrest, or when a train does not begin within 70 days after indictment

30

Fed probation officers have the authority to arrest probation violators, but they are encouraged to obtain an arrest warrant from a court and have the warrant executed by:

the US marshal service

The Auburn System of imprisonment became popular during which prison era?

mass prison

A _____ system is used by prison administrators to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, perceived risk of escape, and other factors

classification

The largest growth group in jails nationwide is:

females

A writ of habeas _____ directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment

corpus

How many security levels are there in the federal prison system?

five

AIMS is best known as:

internal classification system

The National Institute of Correction defines _____ as "creating an environment that reflects an understanding of the realities of women's lives and addresses the issue of women"

gender-responsiveness

A sentences of 8-25 years is an example of a(n):

indeterminate sentence

When a trail court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of appellate review of a lower courts decision, it is giving a:

trial de novo

The Federal Prison Rehabilitation Act of 1965 authorized ______ for federal prisoners

work release

Zebulon Brockway, a leading advocate of indeterminate sentencing, its associated with the ______ era

reformatory

Which sentencing practice gives the offender a fixed term that may be reduced by good time or gain time?

determinate

Quaker, penance, and the Pennsylvania style of imprisonment is tied to the _______era

penitentiary

In Batson v Kentucky the supreme court held that the use of premtory challages ________ was unconstitutional

to confuse the defense

A presumptive sentencing model includes all the following except:

vast judicial discretion

A victim-impact statement is:

usually a written document describing the suffering and trauma experienced by the crime victim used before the sentencng

What goal of sentencing is sometimes referred to as the "lock em up approach"

incapatation

Original Jurisdiction:

Authority to hear a case from beginning and past judgement

Appellate Jurisdiction:

Authority to review decision by a lower court

General Jurisdiction:

Formal court, hear trial of trial de novo

Subject Matter Jurisdiction:

Is the authority of a court to hear cases of a particular type or cases relating to a specific subject matter

Greg v Georgia:

Approved the two-step trial procedure in Capital Cases (reinstated death penalty)

Mc Clesky v. Kemp:

Statistical analysis to determine if race is a factor

Furman v. Georgia:

made the death penalty unconstitutional

Robinson v. California:

Made legal to convict on addiction to narcotics

Gideon v. Wainwright:

Guarantees your right to council

Marbury v. Madison:

Established court authority as final interpreter

U.S. v. Booker:

Constitutionality of federal sentencing practicing

Powell v. Alabama:

Be given reasonable time to secure counsel and go through due process

Ring v. Arizona:

right to a jury trial and minimum sentencing

Apprendi v. New Jersey:

Requiring judges sentencing to consider facts not proven to a jury is unconstitutional

In Re Kemmler:

Death penalty for juvenile

Morrissey v. Brewer:

Provides procedural safeguards to parolees at revocation hearings

Gagnon v. Scarpelli:

Right to counsel. Probationers have right to 2 trials.

Mempa v. Rhay:

That a probationer should have the opportunity for counsel before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed

Ruiz v. Estelle:

Texas prison conditions were cruel and usual punishment. gave inmates better conditions in prison

Wolff v. McDonnel:

Provided inmates with appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them

In re Gult:

established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants

Retribution:

Revenge

Incapacitation:

Imprisonment other means to stop from doing again

Deterrence:

Fear of Punishment by for past or future crime

Rehabilitation:

Rehab, change behavior

Restoration:

Make victim whole

Sir Walton Crawford:

Created the Irish imprisonment system

Captain Alexander Maconochie:

Developed a system of marks through which prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom

Alexis De Tocqueville:

French stressed dangers of contamination in the auburn system where prisoners can negatively influence one other.

Tom Granger:

First Juvenile sentenced to death by hanging in America

Jane Champion:

First female hanged in America

George Kendell:

First execution in America

Erving Goffmen:

Used the term total institutions to describe places where people work, worship, eat, and sleep together

Zebulon Broakway:

Leading advocate of indeterminate sentencing is associated with the Reformatory Era

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