In regard to sentencing, cooperating with the authorities, good character, and no prior record are examples of _______ factors
what kind of parole hearing determines whether the parolee has violated the conditions of his or her parole
According to the National Institute of Corrections _____ percent of women entering prisons are mothers.
A direct relationship between the severity of the sanctions and the seriousness of the crime
Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve time in a local jail before a period of supervised probation?
According to the National Institute for corrections the profile for a female prisoner in American would include the following characteristics:
survivor of a physical or sexual abuse
_____is a court requirement that an alleged or convicted offender pay money or provide services to the victim of the crime or provide services to the community
What world describes aggressive men who assume the masculine role in homosexual relations in male prison?
The Pennsylvania style of imprisonment was characterized by:
solitary confinement and individual cells
What is the name of the jail-management strategy that joins popular/unit structure with a participative, proactive management philosophy?
A preliminary hearing is held to:
determine if there is a probable cause to hold the defendant for trial
Factors that increase the degree of culpability for an offender are known as:
Release on recognizance:
results in the defendants release based on a guarantee that a defendant provides in writing
A(n) _____ is a formalized argument, usually involving a neutral hearing board, whereby inmates have the opportunity to register complaints about conditions of their confinement
After Bob is convicted of murder in a trial court he goes to a higher court and asks that court to review the decision to convict him. The higher court:
has appellate jurisdiction
Suits to formally request a hearing to determine the lawfulness of imprisonment are generally called:
writs of habeas corpus
which of the following does NOT occur at the first appearance?
A defendant had the opportunity to cross-examine witnesses
Bail serves 2 purposes. One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial. The other is:
the prevent people who have not been convicted from suffering imprisonment unneccessarily
Who is responsible for summoning members of the public for jury duty and subpoenaing witnesses for the prosecution and the defense
the clerk of court
Pell vs. Procunier applied the ____ test to the corrections arena, attempting to weigh the rights of the individual against the authority of the state
What do we call laws that limit the right to bail for certain defendants changed with certain crimes
_______ justice is a sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again"
The fed court system is comprised of the US ______ courts, US courts of appeal, and the supreme court
A ______ institution is an enclosed facility separated from society both socially and physically, where the inhabitants share all aspects of their lives daily.
Mempa vs. Ray held that a probationer should have the opportunity for ______ before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed
The US supreme court case Marbury vs. Madison established the courts authority as the _______ of the US constitution
The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government is:
the power of judicial review
What federal law reduced the number of suits brought by state prisoners in federal courts
prison Litigation reform
Erving Goffman used what term to describe places where the same people work, recreate, worship, eat and sleep together
______ capacity is the number of inmates that a facility can effectively accommodate based on an appraisal of the institution's staff, programs, and services
Virtually every person in jail and 97% of those incarcerated in prison:
will eventually be released back into society
The California Department of Corrections had an unwritten policy of racially segregated prisoners in order to prevent racial violence. In 2005 the US supreme Court reviewed that policy and held that it:
Wolf vs. McDonnell provided inmates with:
appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them
What early correctional leader developed a system of marks through with prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom?
Captain Alexander Maconchie
What type of inmate labor system allows private businesses to pay to use inmate labor?
A dormitory-like setting, private rooms, and unarmed correctional officers are characteristics of ______ security institutions
________ is the official suspension of criminal or juvenile proceedings against an alleged offender at any point after a recorded justice system intake, but before the entering of a judgement, and referral of the offender to a treatment or care program
Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of:
What court is the first appellate level for courts of limited jurisdiction
trial courts of general jurisdiction
The federal Speedy Trail Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within ______ days of arrest, or when a train does not begin within 70 days after indictment
Fed probation officers have the authority to arrest probation violators, but they are encouraged to obtain an arrest warrant from a court and have the warrant executed by:
the US marshal service
A _____ system is used by prison administrators to assign inmates to custody levels based on offense history, assessed dangerousness, perceived risk of escape, and other factors
A writ of habeas _____ directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judicial officer to determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment
The National Institute of Correction defines _____ as "creating an environment that reflects an understanding of the realities of women's lives and addresses the issue of women"
When a trail court of general jurisdiction offers a new trial instead of appellate review of a lower courts decision, it is giving a:
trial de novo
Zebulon Brockway, a leading advocate of indeterminate sentencing, its associated with the ______ era
Which sentencing practice gives the offender a fixed term that may be reduced by good time or gain time?
In Batson v Kentucky the supreme court held that the use of premtory challages ________ was unconstitutional
to confuse the defense
A victim-impact statement is:
usually a written document describing the suffering and trauma experienced by the crime victim used before the sentencng
Subject Matter Jurisdiction:
Is the authority of a court to hear cases of a particular type or cases relating to a specific subject matter
Apprendi v. New Jersey:
Requiring judges sentencing to consider facts not proven to a jury is unconstitutional
Mempa v. Rhay:
That a probationer should have the opportunity for counsel before a deferred prison sentence can be imposed
Ruiz v. Estelle:
Texas prison conditions were cruel and usual punishment. gave inmates better conditions in prison
Wolff v. McDonnel:
Provided inmates with appropriate due process before sanctions could be levied against them
Captain Alexander Maconochie:
Developed a system of marks through which prisoners could earn credits to buy their freedom
Alexis De Tocqueville:
French stressed dangers of contamination in the auburn system where prisoners can negatively influence one other.
Used the term total institutions to describe places where people work, worship, eat, and sleep together