Ch. 8 Section 1 & 2 Vocab Quiz

16 terms by madelinieg16 

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calorie

unit of heat defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree centigrade at atmospheric pressure

carbohydrate

an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals

fat

formed from fatty acids and glycerol

protein

supply raw materials for growth and repair of structures such as muscle and skin

vitamin

organic molecule that helps regulate body processes

mineral

inorganic nutrient the body needs, usually in small amounts

amylase

enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches

esophagus

food tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

peristalsis

rhythmic muscular contractions that squeeze food through the esophagus into the stomach

stomach

an enlarged and muscular saclike organ

chyme

liquid mixture of food and stomach fluids released from the stomach into the small intestine

small intestine

digestive organ in which almost all of the digestive enzymes enter the intestine and most chemical digestion takes place

pancreas

gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid

liver

Large organ just above the stomach that produces bile

villus

folded projection that increases the surface area of the walls of the small intestine

large intestine

the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from undigested material and the remaining material is eliminated from the body

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