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• Free Radicals

Answer: are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke

• Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?

Answer: antioxidant minerals

• Which mineral can function as an antioxidant?

Answer: selenium

• The doctor recently told Julie that she is anemic. Julie should consume______with her iron supplement to increase its absorption

Answer: a glass of orange juice

• Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?

Answer: mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds

• Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in

Answer: liver

• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in_______

Answer: adipose tissue

• Which of the following terms is synonymous with the word malignant?

Answer: cancer

• Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in the deficieny of_______

Answer: vitamin A

• How do antioxidant minerals stabilize free radicals?

Answer: break down and convert them to less damaging molecules

• Which of the following foods is high in phosphorus?

Answer: meat

• What medication is effective in treating osteoporosis because of its estrogen like properties?

Answer: selective estrogen receptor modulators

• How can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium?

Answer: eat a high-protein diet

• Which of the following are good sources of magnesium?

Answer: green leafy vegetables

• If a healthy individual were to consume too much calcium from the diet, which of the following is MOST likely to occur?

Answer: the would begin to produce kidney stones

• Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to low bone density in the adult years?

Answer: early onset of menarche in females

• Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?

Answer: calcitonin stimulates the action of vitamin D

• Which of the following techniques can assess the risk of fracture?

Answer: duel energy x-ray absorptiometry

• What is the primary reason osteoporosis incidence in the United States is expected to increase?

Answer: increased longevity of the population

• One of the side effects of using bisphosphonates is______

Answer: abdominal pain

• Which of the following foods are good sources of magnesium?

Answer: green leafy vegetables

• The hormone that assists in maintain blood calcium levels by stimulating the activation of vitamin D is______

Answer: parathyroid hormone (PTH)

• Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in our body?

Answer: calcium

• The primary, active form of vitamin D in the human body is______

Answer: calcitriol

• Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the______gland

Answer: thyroid

• Which of the following is FALSE about trabecular bone?

Answer: comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

• The average person will absorb no more than _______mg of calcium at one time

Answer: 500

• Which of the following is NOT a function of calcium?

Answer: promotes osteoclasts to break down bone

• Vitamin D toxicity is associated with_______

Answer: supplements

• Marie is 55 years old and just had her first DXA assessment. The results indicated that she has a T-score of -1.5. What does her T-score indicate?

Answer: Compared to a 30-year old healthy adult, she has low bone mass

• Federal guidelines in the U.S. specify that school lunches must contain no more than _______from saturated fat

Answer: 10

• The absorption of vitamin______increases in older adults

Answer: A

• On average, Americans have life expectancy that extends into the

Answer: late seventies

• Obesity in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the______percentile

Answer: 95th

• The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends the intake of fruit juice be limited to_______day for children 1-6 years of age

6

• What are dental caries?

Answer: cavities

• Approximately how long would a person's life be prolonged if he or she did not start consuming a Calorie restricted diet at the age of 55 years?

Answer: 4 months

• All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT

Answer: perspiration as we age

• What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?

Answer: fluoride

• All of the following are a choking hazard for children EXCEPT

Answer: yogurt

The doctor has recently told Julie that she is anemic. Julie should consume ________ with her iron supplement to increase its absorption

Answer: a glass of orange juice

• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the mineral selenium?

Answer: Selenium is present only in foods of animal origin

• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in ________

Answer: adipose tissue

• Which of the following cooking methods will likely destroy the most vitamin C in food?

Answer: boiling

• The light sensitive pigment found in rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.

Answer: rhodopsin

• Which of the following hormones requires selenium for its synthesis?

Answer: thyroxinc

• A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is ________.

Answer: oxidation

• Where does the body store selenium?

Answer: in amino acids in the body

• Consuming even moderately excessive doses of vitamin C supplements would be most harmful to individuals suffering from ________

Answer: hemochromatosis

• Which of the following foods would be the best dietary source of preformed vitamin A?

Answer: eggs

• How do antioxidant minerals stabilize free radicals?

Answer: break down and convert them to less damaging molecules

• Diseases that cause the malabsorption of fat can result in a deficiency of ________

Answer: vitamin D

• At what stage in the development of cancer do the cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues?

Answer: progression

• All of the following are signs and symptoms of cancer EXCPET

Answer: unexplained weight gain

• Free radicals

Answer: are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke

The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is ________

Answer: scurvy

• Vitamin K's primary role in the body is_________

Answer: blood clotting

• Vitamin D toxicity is associated with

Answer: supplements

• What medication is effective in treating osteoporosis because of its estrogen-like properties?

Answer: selective estrogen receptor modulators

• Vitamin K serves as a(n) ________ to various enzymes involved in the coagulation of blood.

Answer: coenzyme

• In addition to dietary sources, vitamin K is produced in our

Answer: large intestine

• The spongy bone that is found within the ends of long bones is called ________

Answer: trabecular

• The average person will absorb no more than ________ mg of calcium at one time.

Answer: 500

• Which of the following is FALSE about the trabecular bone?

Answer: comprises approximately 80% of the skeleton

• Which of the following organs is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D?

Answer: all of the above

• Bone ________ refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled.

Answer: remodeling

• At what age does bone resorption generally begin to occur more rapidly than bone formation?

Answer: 40

• Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the ________ gland.

Answer: thyroid

• Which of the following is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?

Answer: milk

• Insufficient vitamin D during adulthood is associated with ________

Answer: osteomalacia

Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ________ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency.

Answer: fat

• Which of the following would NOT be good advice to offer someone who is selecting a calcium supplement?

Answer: take your calcium supplement on an empty stomach to increase absorption

• In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.

Answer: zinc

• All of the following can contribute to chronic dehydration in elderly individuals EXCEPT

Answer: perspiration increases as we age

• Federal guidelines specify that school lunches must provide ________ of the 1989 RDAs for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy.

Answer: 1/3

• The Nutrition Services Incentive Program (former Elderly Nutrition Program) provides all of the following EXCEPT

Answer: coupons to use to purchase foods in the grocery store

• Which of the following is associated with the premature closure of the epiphyseal plate?

Answer: malnutrition

Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?

Answer: iron utilization slows down

• How much fat is recommended for a preschooler?

Answer: 25%-35% of total energy

The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is

Answer: > 85-year-olds

• Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________

Answer: late teens and early twenties

• Which of the following statements is FALSE concerning vitamin C?

Answer: Smokers should consumer less Vitamin C than non-smokers

• All of the following are good sources of vitamin C EXCEPT

Answer: milk

• What is an exchange reaction?

Answer: two-part metabolic reaction that involves a loss and gain of electrons

• Which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?

Answer: smoking cigarettes

Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?

Answer: mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds

Which of the following is FALSE concerning carotenoids?

Answer: Beta-carotene is the only carotenoid that functions as an antioxidant.

Most of the body's vitamin A is stored in the ________

Answer: liver

• Symptoms of a vitamin C deficiency include ________

Answer: bleeding gums and loose teeth

Both Keshan disease and Kashin-Beck disease are associated with a ________ deficiency.

Answer: selenium

• Beta-carotene is a precursor of ________

Answer: retinol

• Beta-carotene is a precursor of ________

Answer: retinol

• About 90% of vitamin E is stored in ________

Answer: adipose tissue

• Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?

Answer: green and red peppers

• The light sensitive pigment found in rod cells formed by retinal and opsin is ________.

Answer: rhodopsin

• Which of the following diseases has NOT been linked to free radical damage?

Answer: type 1 diabetes

• Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?

Answer: antioxidant minerals

• Grandma Jane takes anticoagulant medication daily to prevent blood clots. Which vitamin must she avoid taking in excess of the RDA, as it could interact with the medication causing uncontrollable bleeding?

Answer: Vitamin K

• Assuming equal serving sizes, which of the following foods would be the poorest source of calcium?

Answer: cheddar cheese

• The majority of the body's magnesium is found in the ________

Answer: bones

• Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to low bone density in the adult years?

An swer: onset of menarche in females

Most of the body's phosphorus is stored in ________

Answer: the skeleton

In which phase of a woman's life cycle is bone loss the greatest?

Answer: menopause

• Individuals who have diseases that result in the malabsorption of ________ are at risk for a vitamin D deficiency.

Answer: fat

• When does bone growth and modeling start?

Answer: during fetal development

• How can we increase our absorption of dietary magnesium?

Answer: eat a high-protein diet

• In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining ________

Answer: blood calcium levels

• Vitamin K's primary role in the body is ________

Answer: blood clotting

• The most common site of fracture in an individual suffering from osteoporosis is the

Answer: hip

• Insufficient vitamin D during adulthood is associated with ________

Answer: osteomalacia

• Which of the following does NOT describe a role that calcitonin plays when blood calcium levels are elevated?

Answer: calcitonin stimulates the action of Vitamin D

• Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?

Answer: use food as a reward for healthful behaviors

The RDA for ________ decreases with age.

Answer: iron

• For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume ________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat.

Answer: 30-40

Which of the following is NOT related to the increased iron needs in adolescence?

Answer: iron utilization slows down

Which of the following is NOT a reason that vitamin D and calcium supplements are recommended for elderly individuals?

Answer: absorption of calcium and vitamin D is reduced as we age

The leading cause of death among high-school youths is ________.

Answer: automobile accidents

• Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________

Answer: late teens and early twenties

• Overweight in children is defined as having a BMI at or above the ________ percentile.

Answer: 85th

• All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT

Answer: regular consumption of three meals per day.

On average, Americans have a life expectancy that extends into the ________

Answer: late seventies

• Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?

Answer: food as a reward for healthful behaviors

• Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT

Answer: parents

• In the elderly a ________ deficiency can lead to a decreased sense of taste and smell.

Answer: zinc

• A reduced production of gastric secretions often seen in older adults can result in

Answer: a reduced absorption of calcium

• Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?

Answer: Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass.

• The development of the ________ system is particularly dependent on adequate consumption of fat during the toddler years.

Answer: nervous

• Adolescent acne is caused by

• Answer: hormonal changes

• In addition to proper growth and development, bone remodeling is critical in maintaining ________

Answer: blood calcium levels

The process called bone ________ determines the shape of bones

Answer: modeling

• Which of the following is NOT a function of vitamin E?

Answer: improving the absorption of vitamin C if dietary intake is low

• Fluorosis is associated with ________

Answer: consuming too much fluoride

• Which of the following is a poor source of dietary magnesium?

Answer: refined grain products

• All of the following are physiological changes that typically occur with aging EXCEPT decreased

Answer: fat mass

• Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________

Answer: anorexia nervosa

• Which of the following symptoms is characteristic of bulimia nervosa?

Answer: episodes of extreme overeating followed by purging

• Which of the following is FALSE concerning calcium?

Answer: ninety-nine percent of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissue

• Cindy J. is 63 years old and at risk for osteoporosis. Which of the following dietary supplements would be the MOST helpful to minimize bone loss?

Answer: calcium and vitamin D

Bone ________ refers to the two-step process in which bone tissue is recycled

Answer: remodeling

• Which of the following is our primary dietary source of vitamin D?

Answer: milk

• The total amount of energy needed per day for any given age is called the ________ energy requirement.

Answer: estimated

• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding free radicals?

Answer: our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals

• Which of the following psychiartric disoders causes the most deaths among women?

Answer: anorexia nervosa

• The most common nutrient deficiency in young children is caused by inadequate ________ consumption.

Answer: iron

• A deficiency of ________ can result in erythrocyte hemolysis, leading to anemia

Answer: vitamin E

• Which of the following is NOT an appropriate weight control recommendation for an overweight 11-year-old?

Answer: decrease calorie intake by 1000 calories a day

• In women, the risk of osteoporosis increases with menopause due to the loss of the hormone ________

Answer: estrogen

• The individual with the highest risk of developing a vitamin D deficiency is a/n ________

Answer: elderly institutionalized adult who consumes no milk and receives little or no sun exposure

• Which of the following nutrients requires the most frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?

Answer: vitamin C

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