Mound of adipose tissue, skin, and hair that cushions the pubic symphysis?
Mons Pubis (mons veneris)
Amt of fat in mons pubis does what during puberty and menopause?
Increases in puberty
Decreases in menopause
This is a terminus of the round ligament of the uterus and extends interiorly and posteriorly?
Where is the external urethral orifice located?
Located anterior to the vaginal orifice and posterior to the clitoris
What consists of 2 elongated masses of erectile tissue and is deep to the labia on both sides of the vaginal orifice?
Bulb of the vestibule
Which glands produce a small amount of mucus during sexual arousal and provide lubrication?
Greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands
(4 and 7 o'clock)
Which glands are located on both sides of the vaginal orifice?
Greater vestibular (Bartholin) glands
Which glands secrete mucus into ducts that open into the urethral orifice?
Paraurethral (Skene's) glands
Name the 2 triangular areas contained in the perineum
Urogenital (external genitalia and urethral orifice) and anal (anus)
This supports the abdominal and pelvic organs, composed of levator ani and coccyges, and is important in fecal continence?
T/F. The Levator Ani muscle is tonically contracted most of the time to provide fecal/urinary continence.
Purpose of urogenital diaphragm
Provides framework for attachment of erectile body of clitoris
Major source of vesicourethral control
What is the lowest point in the abdominal cavity for fluid accumulation?
Rectouterine pouch (Pouch of Douglas)
What commonly causes excess fluid in the pouch of douglas?
Ruptured ovarian cyst
local or distant malignancy
What connects the two superficial transverse perineal muscles and is a common area for dissection to loosen up the muscles in that area?
What muscle contracts as a result of oxytocin release during labor and delivery?
Myometrium of the uterus
What structure elongates during pregnancy (after the 28th week) and becomes the lower uterine segment?
portion of the cervix extending into the vagina. Includes parts of the endocervix and exocervix
When does ectropion most commonly occur?
near menarche, during pregnancy, or when using oral contraceptives
What symptoms will the patient experience when ectropion occurs?
More vaginal secretions or postcoital spotting
When do primordial germ cells in the ovary complete first meiotic division during gestation?
What is the earliest that you can determine if the embryo is going to be a female or male?
8-9 weeks (appearance or non-appearance of Sertoli cells coming from the Y chromosomes)
Which of genital ducts is female, (Paramesonephric duct or Mesonephric Ducts)
Paramesonephric (Muellerian) Ducts
Which of the genital ducts is male, (Paramesonephric duct or Mesonephric Ducts)?
Mesonephric (Wolffian) ducts
What causes regression of the Muellerian ducts?
Mullerian Duct Inhibitory Substance (MIS) secreted by the Sertoli cells whose proliferation are generated by the Y chromosome
What part of the fallopian tube opens to the pelvic cavity and has fimbriae on the lateral portion?
What produces local currents that draw the ovulated 2ndary oocyte into the fallopian tube?
Which layer of the fallopian tube is composed of ciliated epithelium containing secretory (peg) cells with microvilli?
What is the function of the secretory (peg) cells in the mucosa of the fallopian tube?
Secrete fluid containing nutrients for the oocyte (fertilized ovum and sperm)
What kind of motion does the muscularis layer of the fallopian tube perform to move the oocyte to the uterine cavity?
Which pelvic ligaments anchor the cervix and vagina to the pelvic wall and provides most of the passive support of the uterus (with the bladder)?
What is the favorable presenting diameter of the average full term infant?
Suboccipitobregmatic (vertex, OA, flexed)
Which of the basic bony pelvic shapes are most favorable for vaginal delivery?
Gynecoid - 50%
What are the pelvic planes?
Plane of Greatest Diameter
Plane of Least Diameter
Opening into the true pelvis that contains the bladder, uterus; Path of the birth canal from sacral promontory to pubic symphisis.
What are the pelvic inlet boundaries?
Superior border of pubis
Linea terminalis (iliopectineal line)
What are the boundaries for the plane of greater diameter?
Posterior pubis at maximum convexity
Superior border of obturator formina
2nd/3rd sacral vertebral junction
What is important about the plane of least diameter?
Clinically most important
Frequent site of arrests
What is the boundaries for the plane of least diameter?
Lower posterior pubic edge anteriorly
Ischial spines and sacrospinous ligaments laterally
What are the boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
Sacrotuberous ligaments and sacrococcygeal joint posteriorly
Inferior margins of pubic rami anteriorly
Ischial tuberosities laterally
What are the 3 types of measurements for the pelvic inlet?
What measurement of the pelvic inlet is made by measuring the length of the finger that can go into the vaginal cavity? (From sacral promontory to just outside of the vagina.)
How do you get the obstetric conjugate?
Subtract 1.5 cm to 2 cm from Diagonal conjugate. (Estimating 1.5 to 2 cm of bone and soft tissue)
Fetal head engagement
Fetal biparietal diameter passes through pelvic inlet and seen in obstetric conjugate
What station is the bony presenting part when it is 2 cm before reaching the ischial spine?
How can an asynclitic type of fetal head engagement help in the birthing process in some cases?
When it enters the pelvis, the asynclitic diameter is actually shorter than the biparietal diameter.
What are the estimates of the midplane?
Pelvic Side Walls
- Parallel (Usual and desired)
(distance between ischial spines)
- Usually 3 fingers between ischial spine & midline sacrum