Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?
a 28-year-old overweight woman
Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ________ principle.
The BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height2 (in meters).
An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.
Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?
Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins
The FIT principle is ________
the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.
Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?
sickle cell anemia
Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase.
Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?
margarine made from corn or safflower oil
Approximately 18 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?
Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer.
Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.
Which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity?
Elisa is a gymnast who trains on average for two hours each day. She supports her daily activity by consuming 2,500 kilocalories per day. What is the minimum number of kilocalories she should consume from carbohydrate?
The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a ________
Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age
By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.
The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.
How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?
The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid.
A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ________ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces.
Jorge is a weightlifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs?
Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.
To achieve moderate intensity physical activity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a target heart rate of between 50 to ________ percent of an individual's maximal heart rate.
In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an OPTIONAL recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products.
Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?
the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin
A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ________.
A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.
A diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.
Which of the following correctly describes the energy balance equation?
energy consumed equals energy expended
The label of ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary components of a sound weight change plan?
a change of more than 2 pounds per week
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?
a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
Which of the following foods contains a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?
palm kernel and coconut oils
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?
The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.
During pregnancy exercise is not recommended as it can cause serious damage to the developing fetus.
Basal metabolism, the energy expended to maintain the body's resting functions, accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.
A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.
The type of fat distribution pattern associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease is known as ________-shaped fat patterning
In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat
Which of the following BEST describes exercise?
leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured
The major fuel source used by the working muscle during long duration physical activity is
What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?
the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called ________
The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that ________
we should do less of, such as watching TV.
The amount of ATP that can be produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than ________ minutes
What is the National Weight Control Registry?
an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year
You weighed a team of football players and, according to their Body Mass Index, they are categorized as overweight and obese. Which of the following would you most likely conclude?
Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated BMIs.
More than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise.
Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?
People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
During the process of protein synthesis, ________ is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell's ribosome.
In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.
The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the ________ metabolic rate.
In physical activity lasting less than 1 hour, the most appropriate fluid replacement is ________
Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes.
Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.
Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?
a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate
A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________
Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism?
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age.
Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.
The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index.
Robin's dinner contains 750 kilocalories. How many kilocalories will Robin expend in order to process this meal?
The thrifty gene theory suggests that ________
some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.
Excellent sources of protein, ________ include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas.
Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?
The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.
Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?
replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.
The heart, lungs, and circulatory system working together to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is referred to as: the ________ system.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes?
Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy.
In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.
The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called ________
Cultural factors can influence both food composition and levels of physical activity, and thus contribute to weight gain.
During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)
Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength.
Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.
In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ________.
insulin producing cells of the pancreas
Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins.
About 5 to ________ percent of our total energy output is attributable to the thermic effect of food.
Which of the following is FALSE abut Peptide YY, sometimes called PYY?
occurs in higher levels in obese people.
George plays basketball for his high school team and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?
He is losing weight.
Despite having decreased their overall percentage of fat calories since the 1960s, Americans are now consuming more calories overall, including total fat.
Petra is a long distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. If she weighs 132 pounds, how many grams of carbohydrate should she consume to achieve this goal?