NS 1034 Exam 5

Created by hillary_hunt 

Upgrade to
remove ads

188 terms

Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes

selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.

Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.

False

A ________ fatty acid contains no double bonds between carbons

saturated

The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's ________

lean body mass.

All of the following result in satiety EXCEPT

decrease in blood sugar.

Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?

a 28-year-old overweight woman

Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ________ principle.

overload

Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats

False

The BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height2 (in meters).

False

People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.

True

An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.

composition

Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?

gastrointestinal distress

A triglyceride is comprised of ________

3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.

The primary energy source used by the body at rest is ________.

fat

When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, energy is released.

True

Intensity of aerobic activities should be at least 110% of maximal heart rate.

False

Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins

turnover

The storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is

glycogen.

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of

two monosaccharides.

The FIT principle is ________

the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.

To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness, you should train more than ________ day(s) per week.

2

Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?

improved performance

Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?

sickle cell anemia

Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?

antibodies

Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.

True

Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase.

True

Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?

margarine made from corn or safflower oil

Which of the following is NOT a function of fat in the human body?

Fats make us feel hungry.

Approximately 18 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?

type 2

Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer.

saturated

Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.

False

Warm-up exercises prepare the muscles for exertion by increasing blood flow and temperature.

True

The ability to move a joint through its full range of motion is ________.

flexibility

One distinct advantage of the BMI is that it is able to account for body composition.

False

The thermic effect of fat is higher than that of carbohydrate or protein.

False

Which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity?

heart rate

Elisa is a gymnast who trains on average for two hours each day. She supports her daily activity by consuming 2,500 kilocalories per day. What is the minimum number of kilocalories she should consume from carbohydrate?

1,125

The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a ________

lacto-ovo vegetarian.

Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?

chicken

Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.

True

On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age

30

Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.

adipose

By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.

hypothalamus

The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.

thermic

How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?

130 grams

Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made from sucrose?

sucralose

The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid.

limiting

A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ________ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces.

edema

Our bodies store glycogen at the highest rate ________ hours after excercise

24

Jorge is a weightlifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs?

Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.

To achieve moderate intensity physical activity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a target heart rate of between 50 to ________ percent of an individual's maximal heart rate.

70

Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes

selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.

In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an OPTIONAL recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products.

False

All legumes are complete proteins.

False

What is the primary form of fat in the diet?

triglycerides

Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?

sterols

The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called ________.

glycolysis

Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?

the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin

Fructose is also known as

levulose.

A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ________.

hypoglycemia

A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.

cis

A diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.

True

To stay healthy, athletes should consume less than 15% of their kcals from fat.

False

Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol.

True

Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans.

True

Which of the following correctly describes the energy balance equation?

energy consumed equals energy expended

The label of ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?

324 kcals

Which of the following is NOT one of the primary components of a sound weight change plan?

a change of more than 2 pounds per week

Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?

a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant

A healthy pregnant woman is in positive nitrogen balance.

True

Which of the following foods contains a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?

palm kernel and coconut oils

How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?

225 kilocalories

What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?

The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.

Ghrelin is ________

a gastric protein that stimulates appetite.

The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are ________.

proteases

During pregnancy exercise is not recommended as it can cause serious damage to the developing fetus.

False

Basal metabolism, the energy expended to maintain the body's resting functions, accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.

True

A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.

True

All of the following are associated with type 1 diabetes EXCEPT

obesity.

The type of fat distribution pattern associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease is known as ________-shaped fat patterning

apple

In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat

ketones

Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats.

unsaturated

Which of the following BEST describes exercise?

leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured

The major fuel source used by the working muscle during long duration physical activity is

fatty acids.

Red blood cells and the brain rely on ________ for energy.

glucose
carbohydrate

What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?

the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell

Eating small frequent meals throughout the day is called ________.

grazing

The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called ________

transamination.

The majority of protein digestion occurs in the mouth.

False

The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that ________

we should do less of, such as watching TV.

The amount of ATP that can be produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than ________ minutes

3

Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?

saturated

When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a/n ________.

buffer

Appetite is a learned behavior.

True

Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.

False

Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.

glucose

What is the National Weight Control Registry?

an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year

You weighed a team of football players and, according to their Body Mass Index, they are categorized as overweight and obese. Which of the following would you most likely conclude?

Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated BMIs.

As they are NOT digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon.

False

More than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise.

True

Gluconeogenesis is

the synthesis of new glucose from amino acids.

Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?

People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.

The enzyme ________ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.

salivary

Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.

glycogen

The primary way the body loses heat is through ________ cooling, or sweating.

evaporative

During the process of protein synthesis, ________ is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell's ribosome.

translation

In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.

pepsinogen

The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the ________ metabolic rate.

basal

In physical activity lasting less than 1 hour, the most appropriate fluid replacement is ________

plain water.

Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?

butter

Which of the following foods contains invisible fats?

chocolate cake

Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.

True

Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes.

False

Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.

True

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?

osteoporosis

The term complex carbohydrates refers to

polysaccharides

Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?

a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate

A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________

morbid obesity.

Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism?

1,855 kcals

On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age.

30

Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.

True

The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index.

glycemic

Individual amino acid supplements are absorbed better than a combination of amino acids.

False

Robin's dinner contains 750 kilocalories. How many kilocalories will Robin expend in order to process this meal?

38-75 kilocalories

The thrifty gene theory suggests that ________

some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.

Which nutrient requires the least amount of energy to digest, transport, and store?

fat

Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?

Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.

How much trans fat is recommended in the diet?

as little as possible

The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.

False

Polypeptides are a string of ________ amino acids.

more than 10

The absorption of proteins occurs in the ________

small intestine.

Excellent sources of protein, ________ include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas.

legumes

Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?

The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.

Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?

replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.

The heart, lungs, and circulatory system working together to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is referred to as: the ________ system.

cardiorespiratory

Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes?

Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy.

In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.

ketones

Fat is the primary fuel for the brain.

False

The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called ________

transcription.

Pear-shaped fat patterning is more common in men than in women.

False

Cultural factors can influence both food composition and levels of physical activity, and thus contribute to weight gain.

True

During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)

mRNA

Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?

gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)

The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the ________

small intestine.

The two essential fatty acids are ________ and alpha-linolenic acids.

linoleic

Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols are the three types of ________.

lipids
fats

Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.

True

A diet low in fiber is associated with an increased risk of developing

diverticulosis.

Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?

thyroxin

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set