Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes
selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.
Protection against heart disease is a potential benefit of a diet rich in simple sugar.
A ________ fatty acid contains no double bonds between carbons
The primary determinant of basal metabolic rate is an individual's ________
lean body mass.
All of the following result in satiety EXCEPT
decrease in blood sugar.
Which of the following individuals would most likely have the lowest basal metabolic rate?
a 28-year-old overweight woman
Placing an extra physical demand on the body to improve the fitness level is called the ________ principle.
Plant fats provide 80-90% of their energy from saturated fats
The BMI is calculated by taking an individual's body weight (in kilograms) divided by their height2 (in meters).
People trying to gain weight should eat most of their kilocalories from carbohydrate.
An individual's body ________ refers to the amount of fat tissue mass as compared with lean tissue mass.
Which of the following health problems has been associated with high intakes of fat replacers?
A triglyceride is comprised of ________
3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol.
The primary energy source used by the body at rest is ________.
When a phosphate group is cleaved from ATP, energy is released.
Intensity of aerobic activities should be at least 110% of maximal heart rate.
Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins
The storage form of glucose in animals found in the liver and skeletal muscle is
A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
The FIT principle is ________
the principle that a good physical fitness program should be based on frequency, intensity, and time.
To achieve cardiorespiratory fitness, you should train more than ________ day(s) per week.
Which of the following is NOT a side effect of carbohydrate loading?
Which of the following health problems is NOT associated with high protein intakes?
sickle cell anemia
Which of the following proteins are fundamental to the immune system?
Marasmus is a serious condition resulting from inadequate intakes of protein and energy.
Carbohydrate digestion ceases in the stomach because the pH of the stomach inactivates salivary amylase.
Which of the following is a rich source of omega-6 fatty acids?
margarine made from corn or safflower oil
Which of the following is NOT a function of fat in the human body?
Fats make us feel hungry.
Approximately 18 million Americans have diabetes. Which of the following is the most prevalent form of diabetes?
Diets high in ________ and trans fatty acids contribute to chronic diseases, including heart disease and cancer.
Studies demonstrate that supplements of androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone are effective in raising testosterone concentrations in the body.
Warm-up exercises prepare the muscles for exertion by increasing blood flow and temperature.
The ability to move a joint through its full range of motion is ________.
One distinct advantage of the BMI is that it is able to account for body composition.
The thermic effect of fat is higher than that of carbohydrate or protein.
Which of the following is traditionally used to evaluate the level of intensity of aerobic activity?
Elisa is a gymnast who trains on average for two hours each day. She supports her daily activity by consuming 2,500 kilocalories per day. What is the minimum number of kilocalories she should consume from carbohydrate?
The type of vegetarian who eats vegetables, grains, fruits, eggs, and milk but excludes all other types of animal protein is called a ________
Which of the following foods is a source of complete protein?
Soybeans are good sources of protein, and the protein quality is almost identical to that of meat.
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age
Leptin is a hormone produced by ________ cells.
By detecting and responding to the body's physiological signals, the ________ is the part of the body in control of hunger regulation.
The ________ effect of food refers to the energy expended to digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store the nutrients we eat.
How many grams of carbohydrate (per day) are recommended to prevent ketosis in healthy individuals (RDA)?
Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made from sucrose?
The essential amino acid found in the shortest supply or missing from the amino acid pool is called a(n) ________ amino acid.
A deficiency of protein can lead to a condition called ________ in which fluid accumulates in the body's tissue spaces.
Our bodies store glycogen at the highest rate ________ hours after excercise
Jorge is a weightlifter who believes that consuming large amounts of protein-rich foods will increase his muscle mass. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding Jorge's protein needs?
Jorge can meet his protein needs by consuming a healthy, balanced diet that is calorically sufficient to meet his activity level.
To achieve moderate intensity physical activity, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a target heart rate of between 50 to ________ percent of an individual's maximal heart rate.
Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes
selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.
In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration issued an OPTIONAL recommendation to list the amounts of trans fatty acids on the Nutrition Facts panel of food products.
All legumes are complete proteins.
What is the primary form of fat in the diet?
Sex hormones and adrenal hormones are substances derived from which class of lipid?
The breakdown of glucose to provide quick energy to the body is called ________.
Which of the following BEST describes the glycemic index?
the extent to which a given food raises blood glucose and insulin
Fructose is also known as
A condition marked by blood glucose levels that are below normal fasting levels is ________.
A ________ fatty acid has hydrogen atoms located on the same side of the double bond in an unsaturated fatty acid.
A diet high in simple sugars has been shown to increase both triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood.
To stay healthy, athletes should consume less than 15% of their kcals from fat.
Regular physical activity can increase HDL-cholesterol.
Serotonin and cholecystokinin increase satiety in humans.
Which of the following correctly describes the energy balance equation?
energy consumed equals energy expended
The label of ready-to-eat cereal box indicates that 1 cup contains 32 grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of protein, and 2 grams of fat. How many kcals are there in two cups of this cereal?
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary components of a sound weight change plan?
a change of more than 2 pounds per week
Which of the following individuals is MOST likely to be in positive nitrogen balance?
a 29-year-old woman who is 6 months pregnant
A healthy pregnant woman is in positive nitrogen balance.
Which of the following foods contains a large quantity of saturated fatty acids?
palm kernel and coconut oils
How many calories are potentially provided by 25 grams of fat?
What type of weight loss will an individual experience by restricting calories but not increasing his or her level of physical activity?
The individual will lose mostly lean body tissue.
Ghrelin is ________
a gastric protein that stimulates appetite.
The enzymes that digest proteins in the small intestine are ________.
During pregnancy exercise is not recommended as it can cause serious damage to the developing fetus.
Basal metabolism, the energy expended to maintain the body's resting functions, accounts for the majority of our total energy output each day.
A woman with a hip-to-waist ratio higher than .80 is at an increased risk for the development of some chronic diseases.
All of the following are associated with type 1 diabetes EXCEPT
The type of fat distribution pattern associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease is known as ________-shaped fat patterning
In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat
Plant foods tend to be high in ________ fats.
Which of the following BEST describes exercise?
leisure physical activity that is purposeful, planned, and structured
The major fuel source used by the working muscle during long duration physical activity is
Red blood cells and the brain rely on ________ for energy.
What dictates the structure of a protein molecule synthesized by the body?
the DNA inside the nucleus of the cell
Eating small frequent meals throughout the day is called ________.
The process of transferring the amine group from one amino acid to another is called ________
The majority of protein digestion occurs in the mouth.
The top of the Physical Activity Pyramid emphasizes activities that ________
we should do less of, such as watching TV.
The amount of ATP that can be produced in glycolysis can maintain exercise for no more than ________ minutes
Which of the following fatty acids is generally solid at room temperature?
When a protein attracts or releases hydrogen, it acts as a/n ________.
Appetite is a learned behavior.
Women are advised to avoid all fish products during pregnancy.
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.
What is the National Weight Control Registry?
an ongoing project detailing the habits of people who have lost at least 30 pounds and maintained their weight for at least one year
You weighed a team of football players and, according to their Body Mass Index, they are categorized as overweight and obese. Which of the following would you most likely conclude?
Their muscle weight is probably responsible for the elevated BMIs.
As they are NOT digested in humans, resistant starches are harmful to the colon.
More than 50% of adults in the United States do not meet national healthy recommendations for exercise.
the synthesis of new glucose from amino acids.
Individuals with the disease phenylketonuria (PKU) should not consume the artificial sweetener aspartame. Why?
People with PKU cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine.
The enzyme ________ amylase is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the mouth.
Carbohydrate loading maximizes the amount of ________ stored in skeletal muscles.
The primary way the body loses heat is through ________ cooling, or sweating.
During the process of protein synthesis, ________ is the step in which messenger RNA is decoded into an amino acid sequence at the cell's ribosome.
In the stomach, HCl converts the inactive enzyme ________ into its active form pepsin to facilitate the breakdown of proteins.
The energy we expend just to maintain our resting functions, such as respiration and circulation is the ________ metabolic rate.
In physical activity lasting less than 1 hour, the most appropriate fluid replacement is ________
Which of the following food items would contain the highest amount of saturated fat?
Which of the following foods contains invisible fats?
Athletes should not take iron supplements unless prescribed by a health care professional.
Muscle tissue contains enough creatine phosphate (CP) to sustain physical activity for up to 10-15 minutes.
Short- and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed and transported more quickly than long-chain fatty acids.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the metabolic syndrome?
The term complex carbohydrates refers to
Which of the following is associated with the development of ketosis?
a diet that contains insufficient carbohydrate
A body weight that exceeds 100% of the normal standard for a given height is called ________
Benjamin is an 18-year-old college student who is 5'10" tall and weighs 170 pounds. How many kilocalories does he expend each day for basal metabolism?
On average, an individual's BMR decreases approximately 3-5% per decade after they reach ________ years of age.
Because minerals and vitamins have no energy value, they can be disregarded when calculating a day's total energy intake.
The ________ load of a food is determined by the grams of carbohydrate it contains multiplied by its glycemic index.
Individual amino acid supplements are absorbed better than a combination of amino acids.
Robin's dinner contains 750 kilocalories. How many kilocalories will Robin expend in order to process this meal?
The thrifty gene theory suggests that ________
some people possess a gene that causes them to expend less energy than other people.
Which nutrient requires the least amount of energy to digest, transport, and store?
Why are phospholipids NOT an essential nutrient?
Our bodies manufacture phospholipids.
How much trans fat is recommended in the diet?
as little as possible
The amount of ATP stored in muscles is unlimited.
Polypeptides are a string of ________ amino acids.
more than 10
The absorption of proteins occurs in the ________
Excellent sources of protein, ________ include foods such as kidney beans, pinto beans, black beans, soybeans, lentils, and chickpeas.
Why are the B vitamins especially important to an athlete?
The B vitamins are directly involved in energy metabolism.
Which of the following is NOT a reason fat becomes an energy source for trained athletes?
replaces carbohydrates as an energy source during prolonged, intense training.
The heart, lungs, and circulatory system working together to supply oxygen and nutrients to working muscles is referred to as: the ________ system.
Which of the following is TRUE regarding type 1 diabetes?
Because individuals do not produce any insulin, treatment always involves insulin therapy.
In the absence of carbohydrate, ________ are produced from the incomplete breakdown of body fat.
Fat is the primary fuel for the brain.
The process through which mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the ribosome is called ________
Pear-shaped fat patterning is more common in men than in women.
Cultural factors can influence both food composition and levels of physical activity, and thus contribute to weight gain.
During transcription, ________ copies genetic information from DNA and carries it to the cytoplasm for synthesis. (Write your answer as an abbreviation in lower and upper case letters.)
Which of the following ergogenic aids has been banned in the United States?
gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB)
The vast majority of fat digestion and absorption occurs in the ________
The two essential fatty acids are ________ and alpha-linolenic acids.
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols are the three types of ________.
Most athletes consume sufficient dietary protein to support their physical activity.
A diet low in fiber is associated with an increased risk of developing
Which of the following hormones is NOT involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?
Consuming individual amino acids and protein supplements can build muscle and improve strength.
Ketones are produced for energy when fat is broken down because ________ intake is insufficient.
Olive oil, canola oil, and cashew nuts are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids.
Serena is 5'8" tall and weighs 180 pounds. Serena's BMI indicates that she is ________
All of the following are examples of low carbohydrate, high protein diets EXCEPT
the DASH diet.
Saccharin use is associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.
In type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease may destroy the ________.
insulin producing cells of the pancreas
Protein ________ involves both the synthesis of new proteins and the breakdown of existing proteins to provide amino acids for building new proteins.
Which of the following is the most complete protein from a plant source?
What element makes protein different from carbohydrate and fat?
About 5 to ________ percent of our total energy output is attributable to the thermic effect of food.
The body mass index is a measurement used to determine a person's body composition.
The primary end product of glycolysis is
In which of the following events would carbohydrate loading NOT be beneficial?
When fructose and glucose are bonded together, they form ________ sugar.
All of the following organs assist in the digestion of lipids EXCEPT the
The key structural components of a cell's membrane is(are) ________.
Overconsumption of simple sugars causes hyperactivity and behavioral problems in children.
When a person's weight exceeds 100% of normal it is defined as ________ obesity.
Denaturation results in the loss of the protein's function.
Which of the following is FALSE abut Peptide YY, sometimes called PYY?
occurs in higher levels in obese people.
George plays basketball for his high school team and he is concerned that he is not consuming enough kilocalories to support his activity. Which of the following would be the BEST indicator that he is not consuming adequate kilocalories?
He is losing weight.
Thirst is a relatively poor indicator of dehydration.
Despite having decreased their overall percentage of fat calories since the 1960s, Americans are now consuming more calories overall, including total fat.
Of the 20 amino acids relevant to the human body, how many are considered nonessential?
Which of the following are the preferred fuels for most body functions?
carbohydrate and fat
Mucilage is a type of fiber used to
thicken jams and yogurts.
Individuals with untreated ________ are at risk for developing ketoacidosis.
Fat is digested more slowly than carbohydrate or protein
In phenylketonuria (PKU), what amino acid becomes conditionally essential?
Excessive production of insulin can result in hypoglycemia.
Insulin is synthesized and secreted by the
An apple-shaped fat pattern increases a person's risk for ________ disease.
Basal functions include all of the following EXCEPT
walking up stairs.
Saturated fats are ________
found in whole milk and beef.
Carbohydrate loading is effective for most athletes and poses no disadvantages
A ________ fatty acid contains no double bonds between carbons.
Petra is a long distance track athlete who would like to optimize her glycogen stores. If she weighs 132 pounds, how many grams of carbohydrate should she consume to achieve this goal?
Over secretion of the hormone leptin will result in weight gain.