A&P2 Ch.27 Fluids Electolytes,pH

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Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption and potassium secretion?

aldosterone

In an adult female, the body consists of about ________ percent water.

50

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?

consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema

In a lean adult male, the body consists of about ________ percent water.

60

A person who consumes large amounts of sodium bicarbonate ("baking soda") to settle an upset stomach risks

metabolic alkalosis

The principal cation in intracellular fluid is

potassium.

Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?

ADH

Prolonged vomiting can result in

metabolic alkalosis

The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of

sodium ions.

To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties can this substance not have in order to be effective?

permeable to brain plasma membranes

In response to respiratory alkalosis, the

kidneys retain more hydrogen ions.

Hypoventilation leads to

respiratory acidosis.

About two-thirds of the body fluid is within cells and is termed ________ fluid.

intracellular

The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by

aldosterone

The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are

sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate.

Severe kidney damage (such as glomerulonephritis) often leads to

metabolic acidosis

A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of

chronic respiratory acidosis

When pure water is consumed,

osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.

All of the following are components of ECF, except

RBCs

A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop

metabolic acidosis.

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone

parathyroid hormone.

Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?

natriuretic peptides

A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called a(n)

buffer.

Hypoventilation leads to

respiratory acidosis.

The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to

limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids

Intracellular fluid (ICF) is found only within

the cells of the body.

Exchange between the two main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the

capillaries.

Approximately ________ liters of peritoneal fluid are produced and reabsorbed each day.

7

Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by

the kidneys.

The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by

aldosterone.

Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?

ADH

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