Contractions to generate movement.
Hold a sturdy body structure and give shape to the organism.
Conduct electrical signals throughout the body.
Break down food for nutrients.
Provide oxygen for cells to do aerobic respiration.
Get rid of unwanted, excess materials and toxins from the body.
Glands secreting hormones that are signals for long term effects.
A layer of protection of the organism.
Detect and destroy foreign invaders to the body.
Flow nutrients, oxygen, and waste through the body.
Type of cells that make up the parts of the central nervous system. Has dendrites and an axon that can be myelinated.
A bundle of neurons. They are used by signals to travel through the body.
A central part of the nervous system that processes information.
Part of the central nervous system of a chordate, which is a centralized processing center for electrical signals along with the brain.
Net of Nerves without a brain that only cnidarians and echinoderms have.
Centralized Nervous System
Center of the nervous system where processing can occur of the sensory organs and electrical signals.
Where the sensory organs begin to concentrate towards one side of the organism forming a head.
A large one opening body cavity in platyhelminthes and cnidarians where respiration, digestion, excretion, and circulation occur. The cavity has water flow in and out where oxygen is taken and carbon dioxide is put in which flows out the one opening.
Can move oxygen and CO2 across it. Annelids, frogs, snails, and slugs can use it as a respiratory device.
Respiratory organs of aquatic animals. Have mechanism that drives water across them where dissolved oxygen is pulled out of the water and the CO2 diffuses into the water.
Respiration system that insects have. Segmented bodies with spiracles can do gas exchange at the different parts.
Small chamber with dividing walls. Air comes in here and exchanges gases with the capillaries.
Lung that deflates and inflates and fills with air and does gas exchange. Chordates have this.
Heart, Blood, and Blood Vessels
Three components of the cardiovascular system.
Open Circulatory System
The interstitial fluid mixes with the blood and can leave the blood vessels. All non-aquatic arthropods have it. Here blood can wash over the cells.
Closed Circulatory System
The blood stays within the vessels and travels through the body. Here blood cannot contact cells directly. It happens with Annelids, Chordates, and some echinoderms.
Blood mixed with interstitial fluid for invertebrates with an open circulatory system.
Two Chambered Heart
Has a ventricle and an atrium. It is found in fish and sharks and consists of deoxygenated blood coming into the atrium and going into the ventricle. It goes from the ventricles to the capillaries in the gills where gas exchange occurs and is pumped to the rest of the body.
Three Chambered Heart
Of amphibians has two atria and two ventricles. Here the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood come to the two different atria and are pumped by the same ventricle causing the mixture of the blood.
Four Chambered Heart
Mammals, crocodiles, and birds have. It has two atria and two ventricles. There are two circuits, one for oxygenated blood and the other for the deoxygenated blood. There are contractions from the atria and the ventricles.
The food passageway from the mouth to the anus. The animals that have this: Annelida, Chordates, Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Arthropoda. It is a complete digestive system with two openings.
Compartmentalized Alimentary Canal
A canal with segments that have other organs (Liver, salivary glands, teeth, tongue) that help with digestion to make it more efficient. We have this along with crickets.
A pressure and fluid filled cavity that gives organism's shape. It is found typically with Cnidarians.
A skeleton made of chitin that is light, but needs to shed to grow. It is found with Platyhelminthes and Annelida.
Calcium Carbonate Skeleton
Found with mollusks besides slugs, octopi, and squids. It is a heavy calcium-rich outer covering.
It is where the skeleton is on the inside of the body and is covered by other tissues. It is very light and has a wide range of movement.
A system of tubules running along the body for excretion. It is found in flat worms. There is a flame bulb at the end for filtration and it runs thin tubules through the whole body.
A system where each segment has its own set of tubules.
Insect's tubules that are open to the interstitial fluid and are connected to the digestive system.
Is a site for filtration and production of urine. It is the urinary organ for the Chordates.
The tubules that make up the kidney. They are tubules that are near a capillary bed for transfer of waste products. Blood goes through them and the bad things are produced into urine. The desirable materials diffuse through the capillary bed.
Maintaining equilibrium within your body. This can be accomplished by regulating pH levels and temperature. Birds and mammals can regulate their temperature by dilating vessels and causing sweating or contractions to produce heat (shivering).
Parts of the body that contract to generate movement.