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The top three causes of death in the US include stroke, cancer, and heart disease. All of these conditions are thought to be increased by ______

obesity

What is a false statement about proteins?

proteins are made of amino acids, vitamins, and minerals

The term "Calorie" is used in nutrition to mean

the amount of energy a food item provides when eaten

True or False: Over time, consuming excess or insufficient amounts of one or more nutrients will result in malnutrition.

True

Nonnutrient substances found in plant foods that show biological activity in the body are commonly known as _______

phytochemicals

which of the following is classified as a micronutrient?

Iron

Which of the following is characteristic of an essential nutrient

Cannot be made in sufficient quantities

Which of the following CANNOT add fat to the body

inorganic nutrients

The percentage range of intakes for protein, fat, and carbohydrate that are thought to reduce the risk of chronic diseases is termed the

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges

Of the ten leading causes of illness and death, how many are associated directly with nutrition

4 out of the 10

All of the following are characteristics of the Dietary Reference Intakes, except:

there are two sets of standards, one for healthy people and one for when someone is sick

Energy recommendation about the proportions of calories that should come from carbohydrate, fat, and protein:

AMDR

TRUE or FALSE: Ingredients on a food label are listed in descending order by weight.

True!

TRUE or FALSE: Because structure/function claims on supplements have undergone rigorous scientific study, the FDA has approved these claims.

False

All of the following are examples of legumes except:
lentils
peanuts
potatoes
garbanzo beans

potatoes

The addition of liberal amounts of calcium to some commercially available orange juice products by juice processors is most properly termed nutrient

fortification

Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the _____ ______

Daily Values

On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories?

2,000

The USDA Food Guide recommends eating

at least half of your grains as whole grains each day

What does it mean to choose foods for their nutrient density?

Foods with a lot of nutrients per calorie such as fish are more nutritious choices than foods with fewer nutrients per calorie such as candy

When you eat a taco, the tortilla, meat, cheese, lettuce, and tomato, are broken apart, releasing the nutrients and other food components they contain. This process is called:

digestion

Which of the following substances is not absorbed?
Amino Acids
Sugars
Fatty acids
Fiber

Fiber

The transport of substances across a cell membrane with the aid of a carrier molecule and the expenditure of energy.

Active transport

Jasmine has gallstones and experiences severe pain when she eats. What substance should she avoid to try to reduce the pain she is experiencing?

fat

What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?

epiglottis

What is the function of mucus in the stomach?

protects stomach cells from gastric juices

What is the function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?

creates an optimum acidity

Which of the following products of digestion is NOT normally released directly into the bloodstream?
fats
minerals
vitamin C
carbohydrates

Fats

People who have frequent regular bouts of heartburn and indigestion have a medical condition known as ________ _______

gastroesophageal reflux

Which of the following processes moves food along the entire GI tract?

peristalsis

People who are lactose intolerant:

have inadequate production of the enzyme lactase

Glycemic index is a measure of:

How an ingested food potentially affects blood glucose levels

the rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone _______, causing blood glucose levels to ______.

insulin; drop

This form of diabetes is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas:

Type 1 diabetes

the type of fiber that lowers blood cholesterol levels:

soluble

In which of the following are ample amounts of carbohydrates almost always found?

plant foods

Which of the following is known as blood sugar or dextrose?

glucose

What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?

glycogen

A person diagnosed with milk allergy would be sensitive to the milk's

protein

Which of the following is a typical response of the body to changes is blood glucose?

Blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagon.

This lipid is an important component of cell membranes, forming a lipid bilayer by orienting the water-soluble portion towards the water environment:

phopholipid

Which of the following is a characteristic of essential fatty acids?

the body cannot make these at all or in sufficient quantities to meet the body's need

All of the following are true about omega-3 fatty acids except:

high amounts in the diet increase inflammation

Each gram of fat from the diet contains ____ calories:

9

Intake of fish, nuts, and whole grains ____ _________ heart disease risk.

may decrease

All of the following foods contain cholesterol except:

potato chips cooked in partially hydrogenated corn oil

Triglycerides that are consumed in the diet can be used in all of the following situations except:

converted to muscle tissue

TRUE or FALSE: Excess calories that are consumed as carbohydrate or protein can be used to synthesize fatty acids

True!

Which of the following is a characteristic of cholesterol?

it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis

Which of the following contains the LEAST cholesterol per serving size?

steamed corn

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