nutrients needed for energy production, growth and cell maintenance. Carries waste products for elimination and transports other blood components.
disease fighting-part of the immune system and defends the body against microorganisms and pathogens. Produces antibodies that resist infection
Make up most of the solid components of blood. Produced in the marrow of large bones. 260 million red blood cells in one drop of blood. Transports oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs.
disk-shaped structures-cell fragments. Essential for clotting-tendency to bind together. Helps stop bleeding by forming blood clots at wound sites.
Functions of the Blood
Transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Protects against disease by producing antibodies. Maintains body temp by circulating blood everywhere.
microscopic blood vessels, link arteries and veins. Transfers oxygen to other nutrients from blood to cell. Carbon dioxide from cells move into veins
carries waste products from cells to kidneys, intestines, and lungs (where was is eliminated)
Process of bleeding
Brain will recognize shortage, signal heart to circulate more blood, and signals lungs to work harder and provide more oxygen.
sterile dressing and gloved hand. Pressure places on wound, restricts blood out of wound and helps clot
Severe external bleeding signals
Blood spurting from wound, bleeding does not stop after trying to stop it.
Steps to care for external bleeding
1. Check scene and person
2. Obtain consent
3. Cover w/sterile dressing
4. Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops
5. Cover the dressing w/bandage
6. Place direct pressure on wound with gauze, pad, or clean cloth
7. Apply pressure bandage to hold gauze in place
8. Add more pads/bandage if the blood soaks through
9. Dont remove blood soaked pads!!!
10. Call 911
11. Monitor victims airway and breathing; observe signals of condition worsening
Steps to care for external bleeding if bleeding does not stop:
1. Apply bandages
2. Take steps to minimize shock
3. Call 911 if haven't already
Severe internal bleeding signals:
Hard tissues become soft, injured area is swollen, tender, or rigid; anxiety/restlessness; rapid, weak pulse; rapid breathing, shortness of breath; moist, pale, cool, ashen skin; bruising; nausea/vomiting; coughing blood; abdomen pain; excessive thirst; decreased level of consciousness; severe headache
Steps to care for internal bleeding:
If severe, call 911. 1. Do not further harm. 2. Monitor bleeding/consciousness. 3. Help victim rest in a comfortable position. 4. Keep victim from getting chilled/heated. 5. Reassure victim. 6. Give specific care when needed.
ABCDE stands for:
airway, breathing, circulation, disability (damage to spinal cord), exposure (injuries caused by environmental condition)
AVPU stands for:
Alert, verbal (to any stimuli), painful (to any stimuli), and unresponsive (to any stimuli).
Levels of alertness:
A+Ox4= who, when, where, and what happened
A+Ox3=who, when, where
A+Ox3=who and when
SAMPLE stands for:
Signs and symptoms, allergies, pertinent past medical history, last intake and output, events leading up to injury/illness.
Health body conditions to maintain adequate blood flow:
Heart working well, adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to circulate body, blood vessels intact to blood flow
failure of circulatory system to provide an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body.
brain, heart, and lungs. do not function properly without an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood
Signals of shock:
Restlessness or irritability, Altered consciousness, pale, ashen bluish skin; rapid breathing, rapid/weak pulse, excessive thirst, nausea/vomiting.
Care for shock:
Check, call, care.
1. Help victim lie down on back
2. Elevate legs 12 in to help blood circulate to vital organs
Do NOT elevate legs when caring for shock IF:
Victim is nauseated or has trouble breathing, any head/neck/back injury, or victim is moving because of more pain.
considered soft tissue and lie beneath fat layer-comprise largest segment of body's soft tissue
Care for closed wounds:
direct pressure/elevate injured area, apply cold to reduce swelling or pain. leave ice pack for 20 minutes.
a burn that involves the two lower layers of the skins (dermis and hypodermis) and may destroy underlying structures