Tremor, Rigidity, Akinesia, Postural Instability
What are the four cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's Disease?
What is the medical term for the sustained, painful twisting muscle contractions seen in patients with Parkinson's Disease?
What is the medical term for the attention loss, loss of impulse control and loss of time awareness seen in patients with Parkinson's Disease?
Which dopaminergic pathway in the brain is primarily responsible for the neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with Parkinson's Disease?
Which dopaminergic pathway in the brain is primarily responsible for the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's Disease?
Depigmentation of the substantia nigra
What is the main neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's Disease?
Complex I in the mitochondria
Environmental factors that may play a role in Parkinson's Disease contain substances that inhibit what?
Which therapy for Parkinson's Disease increases the synthesis of dopamine in the brain?
Which therapy for Parkinson's Disease stimulates the release of dopamine?
Which therapy for Parkinson's Disease inhibits the catabolism of dopamine in the brain by inhibiting MAO-B?
Which therapy for Parkinson's Disease inhibits the catabolism of dopamine in the brain by inhibiting COMT?
Bromocriptine and pramipexole
Which therapies for Parkinson's Disease stimulate the dopamine receptor site directly?
Which therapy for Parkinson's Disease blocks the uptake of dopamine and enhances the release of dopamine?
What is the precursor for L-Dopa?
Besides dopamine, what can L-Dopa be converted into?
True or False: Dopamine does not cross the blood brain barrier.
False (Only tyrosine)
True or False: Both tyrosine and L-Dopa conversion are controlled by negative feedback mechanisms in the brain to control the production of dopamine.
False (Also in the liver and peripheral tissues)
True or False: L-Dopa can only be converted to dopamine in the brain.
What inhibits peripheral DOPA-decarboxylase thus increasing the amount of L-Dopa available to cross the BBB?
Which of the four cardinal symptoms of Parkinson's Disease is the least likely to respond to L-Dopa therapy?
False (Also helps with behavioral symtoms)
True or False: L-Dopa therapy is only effective for treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease.
What causes nausea when initiating L-Dopa therapy?
Prolactin production is decreased with L-Dopa therapy due to the stimulation of dopamine receptors in what system?
True or False: Dyskinesia is painful.
What is the medical term for the uncontrolled flailing of the arms and legs and rapid, repetitive motions seen with increases in L-Dopa dosing frequency?
Which isoform of the MAO enzyme is more specific for dopamine?
True or False: Selegiline is a selective reversible MAO-B inhibitor at normal doses.
COMT inhibitors may decrease the amount of L-Dopa required for therapy by how much?
Which dopamine receptor agonist is an ergotamine derivative?
True or False: Patients who fail L-Dopa therapy may benefit from bromocriptine therapy.
Which dopamine receptor agonist is a nonergot derivative?
What type of drug is trihexyphenidyl?
What type of drug is biperiden?
True or False: Anticholinergic agents are only used as adjuvants for antiparkinson therapy.
What branch of the ANS releases acetylcholine from nerve terminals?
Is early onset or late onset Alzheimer's Disease identifiable with a genetic component?
Which can be found within the neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease: Neurofibrillary tangles or amyloid plaques?
Which enzyme, when mutated, is thought to be responsible for the abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein leading to excess amyloid accumulation seen in Alzheimer's Disease?
Which is though to be increased in patients with Familial Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease: Abeta42 or Abeta40?
What ApoE gene variant can increase the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's Disease?
True or False: ApoE protects Abeta from proteolytic break-down and decreased its clearance from the brain.
What is thought to induce the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in the neuron?
What protein stabilizes microtubules in neuronal cytoskeleton?
Centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
Donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine are what types of drugs?