A.P. Psychology: Chapter 14 - Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorder

To be classified as a psychological disorder, behavior must be deviant (different from norm), distressful, and dysfunctional (affects daily life)

Affect

A term referring to emotion or mood.

Agoraphobia

A fear of pubic places and open spaces, commonly accompanying panic disorder.

Anorexia nervosa

An eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individual's health and stems from emotional or psychological reasons rather than from organic causes.

Antisocial personality disorder

Characterized by a long-sanding pattern of irresponsible behavior indicating a lack of conscience and a diminished sense of responsibility to others.

Anxiety disorders

Mental problems characterized mainly by anxiety; include panic disorder, specific phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period.

Autism

A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another person's state of mind.

Bipolar disorder

A mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression.

Borderline personality disorder

An unstable personality given to impulsive behavior.

Bulimia nervosa

An eating disorder characterized by binges followed by "purges" induced by vomiting or laxatives; typically initiated as a weight-control method.

Conversion disorder

A type of somatoform disorder, marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but with no discernible physical cause.

Delusions

Extreme disorders of thinking, involving persistent false beliefs; hallmark of paranoid disorders.

Depersonalization disorder

An abnormality involving the sensation that mind and body have separated, as in an "out-of-body" experience.

Diathesis-stress hypothesis

In reference to schizophrenia, the proposal that says that genetic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder.

Dissociative amnesia

A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information, such as one's identity or residence.

Dissociative disorders

A group of pathologies involving "fragmentation" of the personality, in which some parts of the personality have become detached, or dissociated, from other parts.

Dissociative fugue

Essentially the same as dissociative amnesia, but with the addition of "flight" from one's home, family, and job.

Dissociative identity disorder (DID)

A condition in which an individual displays multiple identities, or personalities; formerly called "multiple personality disorder."

DSM-IV-TR

The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association; the psychiatric classification system most widely accepted in the United States.

Dyslexia

A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder.

Generalized anxiety disorder

A psychological problem characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external causes.

Hallucinations

False sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder; may have other causes, such as drugs or sensory isolation.

Hypochondriasis

A somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease.

Insanity

A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law.

Major depressive disorder

A mood disorder that occurs when a person exhibits the lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, or loss of interest in family, friends, and activities characteristic of depression for more than a two-week period and for no discernible reason.

Mania

A wildly optimistic, euphoric, hyperactive state that alternates with depression in the bipolar disorder

Medical model

The view that mental disorders are diseases that, like ordinary physical diseases, have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.

Mood disorders

Abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood, including bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder; also called affective disorders.

Narcissistic personality disorder

Characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration.

Neurosis

Before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not shows signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

A condition characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors.

Panic disorder

A disturbance marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connection with events in the person's present experience; unlike generalized anxiety disorder, the victim is usually free of anxiety between panic attacks.

Personality disorder

Conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control.

Phobias

A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation.

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia lasting four weeks ore more following a traumatic experience.

Post-Traumatic Growth

Refers to positive psychological changes that may result from dealing with extremely challenging circumstances

Preparedness hypothesis

The notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors.

Psychopathology

Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.

Psychosis

A disorder involving profound disturbances in perception, rational thinking, or affect.

Schizophrenia

A psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

Believed to be a form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight.

Social-cognitive-behavioral approach

A psychological alternative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combination of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.

Somatoform disorders

Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints, such as weakness or excessive worry about disease; include conversion disorder and hypochondriasis.

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