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by Max (a sexy blonde guy) P.S. I'm really high

geography

earth-writing; study of earth as home of humanity

physical (natural) geography

One of the two major divisions of systematic geography; the spacial analysis of the structure, process, and location of the Earth's natural phenomena such as climate, soil, plants, animals, and topography.

human geography

concentrates on patterns of human activity and on their relationships with the environment.

geographic techniques

Tools used by geographers to help obtain, display, and/or analyze data they have collected - Mapping and Cartography, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing, Statistics

areal differentiation

the geographic description and explanation of spatial differences on Earth's surface; this includes physical as well as human patterns

early history of geography

Old areal maps, Ptolemy's book "Geographica"

Three scholarly traditions

Literary, Cartographic, Mathematical

regional (General) approach

descriptions of specific places

systematic (specific) approach

Analysis of specific topics across regions

geographic features

Surrounding landforms (mountains, rivers, forests, etc), human landscapes

objects

discrete, sharp boundaries, can be conceived as empty

fields

continuous, vague boundaries, exhaustively cover space

Size

Quantitative

Shape

Qualitative

Graytone Value

Quantitative

Hue

Qualitative

Texture

Qualitative

Orientation

Quantitative

process

changes to patterns of features over time;
past processes explain current patterns of natural human features

location

absolute; latitude-longitude reading
relative: dependant on other features

distance

measure of what it takes to overcome seperation between places

Direction

Cardinal - compass
Relative - right, left, etc.

phenomenon (scale)

spatial and/or temporal extent
at which a phenomenon occurs

analysis (scale)

scale at which phenomena will be studied

cartographic (scale)

relationship between the size
of an object on a map and the size of the
actual feature on the earth's surface

generalization

the process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances

spatial association

covariation of 2 phenomena

covariation

Two or more phenomena vary together. Expressed through measures of relations commonly referred to as correlations or associations

region

An area distinguished by a unique
combination of trends or features (internal
uniformity) as compared to surrounding areas;
defined by size, location, boundaries

administrative (region)

politically determined, hierarchical organization, uniform membership, precise boundaries

thematic, or "formal" (region)

1 or more variable or theme, membership strength varies, imprecise boundaries

functional (region)

interconnectedness, nodal (highly centralized), vague boundaries

cognitive, or "perceptual" (region)

how people informally organize places in their minds, shared between culturally similar people, imprecise, vague, and variable boundaries

isochrones

Line on a map that connects points of the same age. (iso-same, chronos-time) frack yeah latin!

Earth's size and shape

8000 miles diameter oblate spheroid

Earth composition (land and water)

71% water, 29% land

graticule

latitude and longitude grid

meridians and parallels

upways and sideways

prime meridian

line of the global grid running from the North Pole to the South Pole through Greenwich, England; starting point for measuring degrees of east and west longitude

remote sensing

the acquisition of data about earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods

multispectral scanner

a satellite launched into orbit around earth which takes readings

resolution

the ability to distinguish stuff in some spectrum or other

reference maps

maps that show the absolute location of places and geographic features determined by a frame of reference, typically latitude and longitude

thematic maps

Maps that tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute of the movement of a geographic phenomenon.

chloropleth maps

maps showing the distribution of a phenomenon by graded shading to indicate the density per unit area

cartograms

A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is repsented by the largest relative area.

isoline (map)

map with lines that connects points of equal or very similar values

proportional area symbol maps

size of symbols represent the value of the attribute on the map

conformal projection

shapes ok, but the area is distorted (mercator projection)

power of maps

facilitates perception of spatial relationships; convenient scale and perspective; highlight relevant properties

Simplication

selective presentation

Generalization

averaging details until homogenization

graphical clarity

exaggeration of features

Projection

distortion leads to false sense of reality

Symbolism

can be misleading

T-O maps

mideval european maps. t=water. o=land forms.

Distance decay

amount of something versus the distance it has to go. shape = left half of parabola, starting from d=0 (y=x^-2)

1st Law of Geography (Tobler's law)

"Everything is related to everything else, but near
things are more related than distant things."

GIS (geographical info system)

A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data

raster data format

in a raster data format, a lake is stored as a
collection of points. If the point is colored blue,
then it is part of the lake.

vector data format

in a vector data format, a lake is stored as a
polygon, which is made of several line segments
representing the boundary.

overlay

The process of generating a new data plane by matching two or more existing data planes of the same area.

critical distance

the distance beyond which cost, effort, and/or means play a determining role in the willingness of the people to travel

intervening opportunity

The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.

movement bias

patterns of movement of people and stuff

barriers to interaction

Distance, Costs, Psychological, Political, and Cultural

principle of parsimony

The simplest explanation is the most reasonable without strong evidence against it (parse these things down)

networks

defined by Manuel Castells as a set of interconnected nodes without a center.

nodes

individuals in a network

links

connect nodes

node hierarchies

vary in importance; some places attract more interaction, and thus have bigger nodes

social gravity

likeliness of places to interact; I=(kP1P2)/d^B
B is usually 2

huff model

An analysis used to determine the probability a customer has of shopping at a particular retailer. Based on size of store and location.

Reilly's law of retail gravitation

larger cities have larger spheres of influence than smaller ones.

behavioral (disaggregate) approach to human geography

geography + psychology; study of human spatial behavior

two motivations for behavioral/cognitive geography

improves models of spatial behavior and interaction, and its a geographical thingy in its own right

Activity Space

where you go in a typical day or week

home range

activity space near home

criminal range

range from a crime?

Time Geography

space-time paths - showing where you at certain times.

Space-Time Prisms

Space-time paths actually exist within prisms, it's complicated

Space-time budgets

budget influences how fast you can travel

total displacement migration

between continents, nations, regions
external (international) vs internal (intra-national)
completely new

partial displacement migration

local moves, overlapping activity space

channelized migration

greater migration flow between two places than expected due to reasons

counter migration

migrations streams often move in both directions

refugees

people who flee their country because of persecution or danger

place perception

attitudes about places, regions, and landscapes;
self identification and definition based on place - I'm from SoCal

Boundary polarization

enmity and competition between neighbors

culture

Socially Shared and Transmitted Patterns of
Beliefs, Behaviors, and Material Artifacts

Ideological

beliefs and knowledge: creation stories, language, ethical systems (mentifacts)

technological

material objects and techniques for use: tools,
farming and cooking practices, weapons,
architecture (artifacts)

sociological

social patterns and rituals: kinship and mating
systems, politics, social hierarchy (sociofacts)

culture ecology

the study of the relationship, between a culture group and the natural environment in occupies

in situ

in the original or natural place or site

culture hearth

a center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward

cultural convergence

The tendency for cultures to become more alike as they increasingly share technology and organizational structures in a modern world united by improved transportation and communication.

cultural syncretism

The blending of elements of cultures; also refered to as hybridization or acculturation.

# of languages

~5000 worldwide

language family

A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.

lingua franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages

dialects

different forms of the same language that have unique words, meanings, and pronounciations

standard language

language used in education, formal language

pidgins, creoles

Languages that form when different societies need to devise a system of communication with each other; mixed languages

toponymy

the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language

animism

Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.

shamanism

The practice of identifying special individuals (shamans) who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia. (p. 292)

secularism

The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.

Universalizing religion

meant for all, diffuse by expansion, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism

ethnic religion

meant for specific cultures, diffuse by diasporas, Hinduism, Judaism

Traditional (Tribal)

small local religion with close, animistic ties to nature, shrinking, ex. Shinto (japanese)

proselytizing

trying to convert someone else to your religion

Hagerwhatever's model thing

mostly random, with some distance decay thrown in.

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