a learning strategy that young children frequently use to relocate someone' behaviors, actions, phrases, etc.
modeling and not correction is always the best way to support language development in young children
Phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, and pragmatics
is the study of the sound system of a language. The basic units of sound are called Phonemes
Example: through has seven graphemes
is the study of the structure of words and word formations
are the smallest representation of meaning.
For example, the word cars is made up with two morphemes: the basic word or root word car and the plural morphemes s.
entails the ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language. English has specific basic sentence structures that are referred to as Kernel Sentence
refers to the vocabulary of a language.
example, the word HOT can have several different meanings; high temperature, fashionable and lucky
refers to the way that meaning is conveyed in language through the use of its vocabulary. The meaning of words is also based on culture as well as the context of the conversation taking place
referes to the implied meaning of words and ideas. speaker must have knowledge of the culture to understand an expression's implied meaning
refers to the literal meaning of words and ideas.
describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication. Native speakers often call these rules "commonsense rules"
Stages of Language Development
Babbling or Pre-Language Stage (0~6 months)
Holophrastic One-Word Stage ( 11-19 months)
Two-Word Stage (13-24 months)
Telegraphic Stage (18-27 months)
Ages Two to Three Year
Ages Six and SEven
Ages Eight to Twelve
refers to words that can be used to accomplish multiple functions. i.e., no,up,all, see more, and gone
voice, fluency, articulation, and language processing
to carry; to transport. to communicate
considered any type of distortion of the pitch, timbre(음색), or volume of spoken communication.
Two Types of Voice Disorder: Phonation and Resonance
Phonation 발음, 발성
any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold. For example, hoarseness or extreme breathiness can interfere with comprehension
describes abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. The most typical example of resonance disorder occurs when the sound passing through the nasal cavity changes oral sounds to nasal, which is called hyper-nasal sounds. This type of disorder should not be confused with nasal quality of Sourther dialects like the Texas twang
Stuttering 말을 더듬다
characterized by multiple false starts or the inability to produce the intended sounds
빠른 말투로 불명확하게 떠들다
occurs when children try to communicate in a excessively face mode that makes comprehension difficult
혀 짧은 발음
a tern used when children (or adults) produce the sound /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth
Language processing Disorders
generally caused by a brain-based distrubance called aphasia ( 실어증)
Three Types of Aphasia are known as : receptive, expressisve, and global
or sensory aphasia
result from a lesion to a region in the upper back part of the temporal lobe of the brain.
People affected with this condiction have the tendency of repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.
Result from damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe. This damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluencty.
Also a brain-based disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive feature of language. Children with this kind of serer impariment of articulation and fluency produce minimal speech and thier comprehension is very limited. This type of language disorder is also known as "irreversible aphasis" which susgest that little can be done to help children suffering from this condition.
Activities to Promote Oral Communication