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Biology Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

Process by which green plants use sunlight to make foods from carbon dioxide and water.

Autotrophs

Organisms which make their own food

Photosynthesis equation

6CO2 + 6H20 --> C6H12O6 + 6O2

Reactants

Carbon dioxide and Water

Factors

Light and chlorophyll

Products

Glucose and oxygen

Leaf

Site in plant where most photosynthesis takes place

Palisade layer

Site in leaf where most photosynthesis takes place

Chloroplast

Site in cell where photosynthesis takes place

Chlorophyll

Pigment which absorbs light

Main events of photosynthesis

1. Light is absorbed. 2. Water is split into protons (H+), electrons and oxygen. 3 Light energises electrons. 4. Carbon dioxide is used to make Glucose

Light stage

1st stage of photosynthesis. Is dependent on light and is not controlled by enzymes

Green

Colour of light which is NOT absorbed

Products of splitting water

Protons (H+), electrons, and oxygen

Fate of electrons

Passed to electron transport chains in the chlorophyll

Fate of protons

Stored in a proton pool for future use

Oxygen

This gas is released to the atmosphere or used for cellular respiration

Adenosine Triphosphate

What ATP stands for

Adenosine Diphosphate

What ADP stands for

ATP

high energy molecule which carries energy

ADP

low energy molecule which binds with phosphate to form a high energy molecule

Cyclic electron pathway

The high energy electrons pass from chlorophyll to a series of electron acceptors and back to chlorophyll. Makes ATP

NADP+

low energy molecule which binds with 2 electrons and a proton (H+) to form a high energy molecule

NADPH

high energy molecule which transports protons and electrons

Non-Cyclic electron pathway

Two high energy electrons are passed from chlorophyll to electron acceptor but do not go back to the chlorophyll. Used to make more ATP and NADPH

ATP + NADPH + O2

End products of light stage

ATP

Molecule made in light stage which supplies energy for dark stage

NADPH

Molecule made in light stage which supplies protons and electrons for dark stage

Water

This small molecule provides the H for making glucose

Dark stage

2nd stage of photosynthesis. Is NOT dependent on light but is controlled by enzymes

Events in Dark stage

Carbon dioxide is taken in and combines with hydrogen ions. The carbon dioxide is reduced to glucose

Carbon dioxide

This small molecule provides the C for making glucose

Elodea

Plant used to measure the rate of photosynthesis

Light and Carbon dioxide concentration

Factors which effect the rate of photosynthesis

Number of bubbles per minute

How the rate of photosynthesis is measured

Distance of light bulb from plant

How light intensity is changed

Saturated Calcium carbonate solution

How Carbon dioxide concentration is kept the same

Water bath

How temperature is kept the same

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