The repetition of the same sound or letter at the beginning of consecutive words or syllables. "Peter Pieper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers."
An indirect reference, often to another text or an historic event. "Smart Name-Dropping."
An extended comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things. A longer simile.
The repetition of words at the beginning of successive clauses. "I Have a Dream"
A short account of an interesting event.
Explanatory or critical notes added to a text.
The noun to which a later pronoun refers.
"Professor Rushek is out of her mind." Her is the pronoun, the _____________ is...
The repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast. "My heart is a boulder. My heart is a stone. My heart is a pebble. My heart is alone."
Parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas, such as "You cannot live without learning, you cannot learn without living." or "You win some, you lose some."
A short, astute statement of a general truth. Similar to an attention-getter. It's purpose could be to not marginalize, or leave out, any reader of an essay. Such as "Society oftentimes argues about if global warming is the effect of human action."
The use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated
A fallacy of logic in which the writer attacks the character of the arguer rather than discuss the ideas. i.e. Vicky makes the claim that Professor Rushek is not a good teacher. Professor Rushek comes back by saying Vicky is an "idiot" rather than discussing the claim at hand.
A statement put forth and supported by evidence.
An emphatic statement; declaration. A/an _________ supported by evidence becomes an argument.
A belief or statement taken for granted without proof.
Leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, clauses. There are no FANBOYS (For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so) joining the clauses. This purpose would be to show the importance of what is being said or makes the author seem as though he or she is rushing because of the importance of the matter. "I came, I saw, I conquered."
The speaker's position on a subject as revealed through his or her tone.
One's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing
A reliable, respected source—someone with knowledge. A writer often uses __________ to appeal to the reader's logos. An example would be when Swift discussed what his friend, the King, thought about poor children. It makes the reader buy into the argument.
Prejudice or predisposition toward one side of a subject or issue.
Identifying a part of a piece of writing as being derived from a source.
An assertion, usually supported by evidence.
A careful reading that is attentive to organization, figurative language, sentence structure, vocabulary, and other literary and structural elements of a text. i.e., what you should do to the passage of Essay #2, the rhetorical analysis essay.
An informal or conversational use of language.
Shared beliefs, values, or positions. An author may use this to appeal to the reader's pathos... Make the reader feel like the author and he/she have something in ____________. An example might be in using the first person, such as "We all come from a mother's womb, therefore, we all know how important a woman's role is."
A reluctant acknowledgment or yielding. The debate equivalent of retreating or "waving the white flag."
That which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word's literal meaning
Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning. AKA the blurb about the author and time period before a passage.
A challenge to a position; an opposing argument.
Worthy of belief; trustworthy.
A sentence that makes a statement.
The literal meaning of a word; its dictionary definition.
Mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone.
A brief witty statement.
A Greek term referring to the character of a person; one of Aristotle's
three rhetorical appeals
The use of tropes or figures of speech; going beyond literal meaning to achieve literary effect.
Exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis.
Vivid use of language that evokes a reader's senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, hearing).
Reasoning from specific to general.
reasoning from general to specific.
A contradiction between what is said and what is meant; incongruity between action and result.
Placement of two things side by side for emphasis.
A Greek term that means "word"; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals
A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as
though it were something else, thus making an implicit comparison.
Use of an aspect of something to represent the whole. Almost like giving an example. Almost a hasty generalization, too... Like "the seniors are going to college, for example, Melana Bass."
An aspect of context; the cause or reason for writing.
An all-knowing, usually third-person narrator.
A figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms, such as "a small crowd," "jumbo shrimp," or "pretty ugly."
The relative speed or slowness with which a story is told or an idea is presented.
A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true.
The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns.
A piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent features of another; used for comic effect or ridicule.
A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals
The speaker, voice, or character taken on by the author of a piece of writing. i.e. the _________ Swift wrote in for "A Modest Proposal" was not, in fact, the thoughts of the author himself.
Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects.
The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions. The opposite of a syndenton. Purpose to show excitement or inability to choose sides. i.e. "My favorite student is Jerrieca, or Jaquorian, or Jamaira, or Johnathan, or Jessica. Or everyone in my 4th period."
A negative term for writing designed to sway opinion rather than present information.
One's intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing.
To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument.
The study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle, use of the "available means of persuasion."
Patterns of organization developed to achieve a specific purpose; modes include but are not limited to narration, description, comparison and contrast, cause and effect, definition, exemplification, classification and division, process analysis, and argumentation.
A question asked more to produce an effect than to summon an answer.
A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship among the speaker, the subject, and the audience (see Aristotelian triangle).
An ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something, but actually argues against it.
A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.
Using a variety of sentence patterns to create a desired effect.
A figure of speech that uses "like" or "as" to compare two things.
A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective
(real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing.
A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position;
misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent's position.
The distinctive qualitiy of speech or writing created by the selection and arrangement of words and figures of speech.
circular logic (or Begging the Question)
A logical fallacy in which the evidence makes the same claim as the argument. For example, if your claim was "Professor Rushek is a great teacher," and your evidence was "she's a great teacher because she teaches well." This is ___________________.
A fallacy of logic in which an argument is based on insufficient (not enough) evidence. i.e. "The juniors will outscore the seniors on the ACT because they looked like they were taking the test well."
A fallacy of logic in which a desperate arguer often tries to change the ground of the argument by changing the subject.
In rhetoric, the topic addressed in a piece of writing.
A form of deductive reasoning in which the conclusion is supported
by a major and minor premise (see premise; major, and minor).
The central idea in a work to which all parts of the work refer.
The speaker's attitude toward the subject or audience.
Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure
Lack of emphasis in a statement or point; restraint in language
often used for ironic effect.
In grammar, a term for the relationship between a verb and a noun (active
or passive voice). In rhetoric, a distinctive quality in the style and tone of
a rhetorical device in which a whole is represented by naming one of its parts.
A rhetorical device in which a word is repeated in two or more different senses.
Using words that sound alike but that differ in meaning (punning).
Use of words whose sound correspond with their semantic value.
Substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name or of a proper name for a quality associated with the name. i.e. "I need your John Hancock on this line."
Understatement used deliberately.
Placing two ordinarily opposing terms adjacent to one another. A compressed paradox.
a figure of speech in which one directly addresses an absent or imaginary person, or some abstraction
a methodically and thoroughly written discussion of a topic
overly emotional or sentimental
lack of clarity; wavering; being undecided
wishing for a return to the way things used to be; longing for the past; homesick
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant. i.e. "he went to his final resting place," rather than "He died."
a statement that has two meanings, one of which is dirty or vulgar. Beyonce's song "Ego"
to produce, cause, or bring about
intending to understand the nature of something
one who writes in defense of a cause or institution
An adjective or other descriptive phrase that is regularly used to characterize a person, place, or thing. A nickname.