A & P lab exam3-2

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A & P lab exam3-2

Secretes 60% of semen volum; alkaline pH; prostaglandins

1. seminal vesicles

Organ that produces sperm

2. testes

Part of urethra within the urogenital diaphragm

membranous urethra

Site of storage and maturation of sperm

epididymis

Secretes 25% of semen volumes; increases viability and motility

prostate gland

Located in prostate; formed by union of ducts of the ductus deferens and seminal vesicle

ejaculatory duct

Covers and protects testes

scrotum

Contracts to pull testes close to body; located in spermatic cord

cremaster muscle

Last section of urethra located in penis

spongy (penile) urethra

Tube located in both the spermatic cord and pelvic cavity for trasnporting sperm

ductus (vas) deferens

Contracts to wrinkle scrotum; located in scrotal wall

dartos muscle

Ejaculatory duct opens into this part of urethra

prostatic urethra

Copulatory organ; passageway for urine and semen

penis

Secretes mucus for lubrication of glans; alkaline pH

bulbourethral glands

Trace sperm from their production to ejaculation

1. seminiferous tubules
2. straight tubules
3. rete testis
4. efferent ducts
5. epididymis
6. ductus (vas) deferens
7. ampulla of ductus deferens
8. ejaculatory duct
9. prostatic urethra
10. membranous urethra
11. spongy (penile) urethra

Part of sperm that contains chromosomes

nucleus in head

Haploid cells formed when secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis II

spermatids

Cells that secrete testosterone

Leydig cells

Diploid stem cells

spermatogonia

Process that produces haploid sperm and diploid stem cells

spermatogenesis

Cells that surround spermatocytes and spermatids and provide chemical environment for spermatogenesis

Sertoli cells

Space within testes where Leydig cells are located

interstitial space

Diploid cells that undergo meiosis I to form two haploid secondary spermatocytes

primary spermatocytes

Process that transforms spermatids into sperm

spermiogenesis

Part of sperm that produces ATP

mitochondria in midpiece

Propels the sperm

flagellum (tail)

Can sperm move in reverse as well as forward? Explain.

No. The whip-like motion of the flagellum only propels the sperm forward.

Which men would have a higher testicular temperature, those who wear briefs or those who wear boxer shorts?
Which would be morely likely to cause sterility? Explain.

Briefs; The briefs would be more likely to cause sterility because they hold the testes close to the body, increasing testicular temperature.

The male reproductive system has both exocrine and endocrine functions. Name one endocrine secretion.

testosterone

Name four exocrine secretions.

sperm; seminal fluid; prostatic fluid; bulbourethral fluid

To perform a vasectomy, does the doctor have to surgically enter the abdominal cavity? Explain.

No. The part of the vas deferens that is cut for a vasectomy is located outside the body wall in the spermatic cord.

A vasectomy involves cutting the ductus deferens. Does a vasectomy impede testosterone levels, having a penile erection, or having an ejaculation? Explain each situation.

A vasectomy does not impede testosterone levels, having an erection, or having an ejaculation.

Testosterone levels - Testosterone is secreted into the blood stream by the Leydig cells in the testis.

Penile erection and ejaculation - Parasympathetic innervation is responsible for a penile erection. Sympathetic innervation stimulates ejaculation. The nerves for these are not cut in a vasectomy.

Many body builders who take high doses of anabolic steriods have undesirable side effects. Name four side effects.

Any of the following may be used as correct answers: decreased testosterone secretion; atrophy of testes; baldness; liver cancer; kidney damage; increased risk of heart disease; stunted growth; wide mood swings; increased irritability; increased aggression

domed portion of the uterus

fundus

transports secondary oocyte toward uterus

uterine tube

usual site of fertilization

ampulla

found on end of infunbulum of uterine tubes

fimbriae

opening between uterus and cervix

internal os

largest portion of uterus

body

implation of zygote and development of fetus occurs in this organ

uterus

narrower portion of uterus; connects with vagina

cervix

produces secondary oocytes

ovary

middle layer of the uterus

myometrium

sheet-like ligament attaches uterus to lateral body wall

broad ligament

layer of uterus that sheds during menstration

stratum functionalis of endometrium

ligament attaches uterus to labia majora

round ligament

area between the labia minora with openings of urethra and vagina

vestibule

folds in vagina

rugae

erectile tissue

clitoris

tissue that pads mons pubis

adipose

milk-producing glands

alveoli of mammary glands

openings in the nipple

lactiferous duct openings

organ for intercourse; canal for childbirth and menstruation

vagina

another name for external genitalia

vulva

Number in correct order (1-6) from the earliest to the latest stage of development

C. Histology of Ovary
1. primordial follicle
2. primary follicle
3. secondary follicle
4. mature (graafian) follicle
5. corpus luteum
6. corpus albicans

Number the structures (1-7_ for the pathway of a secondary oocyte from the ovary to the uterus

D. Pathway of a Secondary Oocyte
1. ovary
2. fimbriae of uterine tube
3. infundibulum of uterine tube
4. ampulla of uterine tube
5. isthmus of uterine tube
6. fundus of uterus
7. body of uterus

An ovariectomy is a surgical procedure that removes one or both ovaries, and a hysterectomy is a procedure that removes the uterus. State whether ovulation and menstruation will occur after:

(a) no ovulation; no menstruation unless estrogen and progesterone are administered
(b) ovulation occurs; no menstruation

A hysterectomy can cause a protrusion of the urinary bladder through the wall of the vagina. Based on your knowledge of anatomy, why would a hysterectomy cause this problem?

2. The uterus lies posterior and superior to the urinary bladder. Once the uterus is removed, the urinary bladder can fall backwards and protrude through the vaginal wall.

Vasectomies and tubal ligations both involve severing and tying a tube to prevent a pregnancy. Which procedure is less invasive surgically? Explain.

3. Tubal ligations involve entering the abdominopelvic cavity, while vasectomies are done outside the abdominopelvic cavity in the spermatic cord, so vasectomy would be the less invasive surgical procedure.

An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy somewhere other than the uterus. Explain how a pregnancy could occur in the abdominal cavity.

4. The ovulated secondary oocyte is usually fertilized in the ampulla of the uterine tube. There is a chance that the oocyte is fertilized in the infundibulum and can fall through the small space between the ovary and the fimbriae of the infundibulum. The zygote could then use its enzymes to attach to implant within the wall of the intestine or another organ.

Some women notice a small blood spot shortly after ovulation. Explain why ovulation can cause this.

5. When the Graafian follicle bursts, there is some bleeding that occurs and some of this could enter the infundibulum and travel to the uterus to cause spotting from the vagina.

Endometriosis is a condition in which the endometrial tissue grows on the outside of the uterus and in other locations in the pelvic cavity. Explain how the endometrial tissue travels to these locations.

6. Endometrial tissue can enter the abdominopelvic cavity through the open end of the infundibulum.

A female who has contracted gonorrhea (bacterial infection) through intercourse can develop scarring of the uterine tubes. Explain how an ectopic pregnancy may result then.

7. Scarring of the uterine tube can cause the narrow opening within the isthmus to narrow. If closed enough, the fertilized egg (zygote) that is growing may not be able to get through the isthmus and into the uterus. When the zygote matures enough to secrete its enzymes, it could implant itself in the uterine tube wall instead of the uterus.

Compare the amount of cytoplasm and number of organelles in ova to that in sperm.

a) The secondary oocyte (ovum) contains most of the cytoplasm and organelles from the oogonium. During spermiogenesis, the last phase of spermatogenesis, most of the cytoplasm and organelles are stripped from the newly formed sperm, except the nucleus, mitochondria, and acrosome (with lysosomic enzymes).
b) The fertilized ovum (zygote) needs all the organelles for cell division. The sperm needs mitochondria to make energy for the sperm to reach the ovum, and enzymes in the acrosome to penetrate the ovum for the transfer of genetic material for the zygote to be formed.

A homologous structure is an organ that has the same embyronic origin. Using your textbook, look up which male structure is homologous to the clitoris.

Penis

The urinary bladder is just anterior and inferior to the vagina and uterus. Extra pressure from palpating the uterus may stimulate an urge to void.

The urinary bladder is just anterior and inferior to the vagina and uterus. Extra pressure from palpating the uterus may stimulate an urge to void.

The name of the olulated structure prior to fertilization.

Ovum

The blastocyst structure that becomes the embryo

inner cell mass

The anatomical structure where fertilization normally takes place

ampulla of uterine tube

The stage of the embryo that implants in the uterine wall.

blastocyst

After fertilization, implantation normally occurs on this day.

day 7

The membrane that forms the embryonic side of the placenta.

chorionic villi

The structure that is formed after the morula

blastocyst

The structure that the blastocyst sheds before implantation.

zona pellucida

The structure that forms the maternal side of the placenta.

decidua basalis

The name of the thin, protective membrane that encompasses the embryo

amnion

The side of the placenta that is smooth and shiny

fetal surface

The number of umbilical arteries in the umbilical cord

2

The number of umbilical veins in the umbilical cord.

1

This placental structure has villi.

chorionic villi

The number of primary germ layers that form all body organs.

3

Sustains the embryo with nutrients and removes wastes.

placenta

The name of the female gamete.

ovum

The name of the male gamete.

sperm

The inner layer of the uterus where implantation occurs.

endometrium

The name of the fertilized egg.

zygote

Primary germ layer that becomes the outer skin and nervous system.

ectododerm

Primary germ layer that gives rise to epitheliail lining of digestive and respiratory organs.

endoderm

Primary germ layer that produces bone, muscle, cartilage, and blood.

mesoderm

The "bag of waters" that breaks at birth.

amnion

The fetal period lasts from week _______ to week __________.

week 9 to week 38

By week ____ all organ systems are present.

week 9

Toward the end of the embryonic period, week ____, the developing embryo looks like a human.

week 8

The fetus first doubles in size between weeks ______ and _________.

12, 20

The fetus doubles in size again between weeks _______ and ________.

16, 24

The fetus more than doubles between weeks _______ and _____.

7. 20, 38

The acrosome of a sperm contains hydrolytic enzymes. Using your knowledge, what is the purpose of these enzymes.

1. These enzymes are used by the sperm to create an opening in the corona radiata, zona pellucida, and plasma membrane of the oocyte for the sperm to pass through.

Ectopic pregnancies occur in the uterine tubes or pelvic cavity. Explain how this can occur.

An ectopic pregnancy in the uterine tube can occur if there is blockage in the uterine tube which would allow sperm to pass into the uterine tube, but not allow the oocyte, zygote or anything larger to enter the uterus. Implantation of the blastocyst occurs in the wall of the uterine tube. An ectopic pregnancy in the pelvic cavity can occur if the ovulated oocyte does not enter the uterine tube and is fertilized by the sperm in the pelvic cavity. Implantation of the blastocyst can occur on an ovary, the cervix or another organ in the abdominal pelvic cavity.

Amniocentesis is a test conducted on fetal cells found in amniotic fluid to determine whether fetal cells have genetic abnormalities. Amniocentesis is usually conducted at 12 weeks. Amniotic fluid is collected by inserting a needle into the mother's abdomen. List the structures the needle must go through to collect the amniotic fluid.

Skin and hypodermis, abdominal wall muscles, uterus, placenta.

Are the cells obtained for culture from amniocentesis most likwely derived from ectoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm?

Fetal cells in amniotic fluid are derived from ectoderm (epithelial cells from skin) and endoderm (epithelial cells from the lining of the digestive tract, lungs, and bladder).

Chorionic villi sampling (CVS) is a test to determine whether fetal cells have genetic abnoramliies and can be performed as early as 8 weeks. Chorionic villi cells are removed using a small tube that is passed through the cervix. Thesee cells are cultured and undergo chromosomal analysis. Explain why chorionic villi cells will determine whether the fetus has genetic abnormalities.

Chorionic villi cells develop from trophoblast cells.

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome, a conditionh that can cause heart defects, damage to the central nervous system, deformed limbs, slow growth, and anormal facial features. Explain how the ingested alcohol is transferred from mother to fetus.

6. Alcohol is lipid soluble and can therefore diffuse through cell membranes of maternal placenta capillaries to enter fetal capillaries.

Early pregnancy tests used antibodies to detect the presence of huan chorionic gonadotropic (hCG) in maternal urine. Explain how hCG produces by the chorion, gets in materal urine.

HCG is secreted by the chorion into maternal blood. This hormone travels through the circulatory system and stimulates the corpus luteum to secrete estrogen and progesterone. In the kidneys, blood is filtered and the filtrate that is formed contains hCG to be excreted in urine.

Human embryonic stem cells research uses stem cells cultured from the blastula. These cells are pluripotent, meaning that these stem cells can develop many different types of human cells. Identify the part of the blastula that they are using and explain your choice.

The inner cell mass of the blastocyst develops into the embryo.

During an ultraonography, the doctor observes that all four chambers of the fetal heart are developed normally and that blood can be observed passing from the right atrium to the left atrium. Explain why it is normal for blood to pass from the right to left atrium in the fetal heart.

In the fetus, the foramen ovale (a hole in the septum between atria) allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the lungs.

Placenta previa is a condition in which either part or the entire placenta implants in the inferior part of the uterus near the cervix. Explain why this can cause spontaneous abortion or premature birth.

In placenta previa, the weight of the fetus and amnionic fluid is pressing on the placenta while the mother is standing. This pressure can injure the placental vessels causing bleeding.

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