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Taken from my own notes and: Aronson, E., Wilson, T. D., & Akert, R. M. (2010). Social Psychology (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

aggression

Intentional behavior aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person.

hostile aggression

Aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain.

instrumental aggression

Aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain.

eros

The instinct towards life, posited by Freud.

thanatos

According to Freud, an instinctual drive towards death, leading to aggressive actions.

amygdala

An area in the core of the brain that is associated with aggressive behaviors.

serotonin

A chemical in the brain that may inhibit aggressive impulses.

testosterone

A hormone associated with aggression.

frustration-aggression theory

The idea that frustration - the perception that you are being prevented from attaining a goal - increases the probability of an aggressive response.

aggressive stimulus

An object that is associated with aggressive responses (e.g. a gun) and whose mere presence can increase the probability of aggression.

social learning theory

The idea that we learn social behavior (e.g., aggression) by observing others and imitating them.

scripts

Ways of behaving socially that we learn implicitly from our culture.

catharsis

The notion that "blowing off steam" - by performing an aggressive act, watching others engage in aggressive behaviors, or engaging in a fantasy of aggression - relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behavior.

a behavior

Four important features to be aggression: 1) ________ , 2) intentional (not accidental), 3) intent is harm, 4) victim wants to avoid harm.

a behavior

Four important features to be aggression: 1) ________, 2) intentional harm (not accidental) 3) victim wants to avoid harm.

intentional harm (not accidental)

Four important features to be aggression: 1) a behavior, 2) ________ 3) victim wants to avoid harm.

victim wants to avoid harm

Four important features to be aggression: 1) a behavior, 2) intentional harm (not accidental) 3) ________.

aggression

Behavior intended to harm another person, who is motivated to avoid harm.

hostile aggression

"Hot," impulsive angry behavior that is motivated by a desire to harm someone

instrumental aggression

"Cold," premeditated, calculated harmful behavior that is a means to some practical or material end.

1

According to most social psychologists, aggression is defined as 1) intent to cause harm and pain in another and then actually do it, 2) inflicting harm and pain in another, 3) intent to relieve frustration by harming another, 4) any action that results in physical or psychological pain in another

1

Ruth find out boyfriend is cheating on her. What type of aggression would it be when she spreads malicious rumours about him? 1) indirect aggression, 2) assertive aggression, 3) instrumental aggression, 4) feminine aggression

3

According to social psychologists' definition, aggression which is best example: 1) David is not paying attention and drives over the neighbour's cat, 2) Amanda asserts herself with her boss and successfully argues for a pay rise, 3) Child temper tantrum, 4) Basketball foul

4

Hostile aggression differs from instrumental aggression in that instrumental aggression 1) often follows from anger or frustration, 2) is more destructive than hostile aggression, 3) more likely to result in retaliation, 4) involves inflicting pain as a means to an end

Freud

Which psychology theorist said that we have a death instinct; an unconscious impulse toward self destruction?

Konrad Lorenz

Which psychology theorist said that aggression is an innate, instinctual motivation, it secures an advantage in the struggle to survive, and society turns the energy of aggression into useful stuff, like art and speed?

Evolutionary psychology

Which school of psychology places emphasis on genetic survival rather than survival of the individual in the exercise of aggression? for example, uses genetic survival to account for inhibition of aggression against genetically related others?

amygdala

Which part of the brain plays a large part in the neurological basis of aggression?

positive

There is a strong, [negative/positive] correlation between testosterone levels and aggression

no (there are socialization effects too)

[yes/no] Does testosterone account for persistent sex differences in physical aggression?

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter that appears to restrain impulsive acts of aggression.

low, lowest

[Low/high] levels of serotonin are associated with high levels of aggression. Really violent criminals have [lowest/highest] levels of serotonin

catharsis

A reduction of the motive to aggress that is said to result from any imagined, observed, or actual act of aggression. (cleansing, purging)

displacement

Aggressing against a substitute target because aggressive acts against the source of the frustration are inhibited by fear or lack of access

understood

Frustration produces anger or annoyance and a readiness to aggress if other things about the situation are conducive to aggressive behavior. If the cause of frustration can be__________, then frustration won't lead to aggression.

automatic cognition

Thinking that is based on situational cues, such as the weapons effect and aggression.

weapons effect

Term for the tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence.

the same way as

Transfer of arousal occurs for aggression in [the same way as/ a different way than] it does for attraction.

attribution

Arousal can be transferred from one source to another; whether It Is transferred depends on the subject's __________

A

_____ is to neural cause of aggression as _____ is to chemical cause: A) amygdala, testosterone, B) testosterone, subcortical stimulation, C) an evolutionary explanation, a biological explanation, D) arousal, frustration.

C

A neurotransmitter whose LACK is associated with aggression is, A) testosterone, B) norepinephrine, C) serotonin, D) dopamine.

less

Rats pumped with serotonin are [less/more] aggressive

C

Dave and Ernie have a major disagreement over a woman they both like. In which location is the disagreement least likely to erupt into a physical fight. A) at a bar, B) at a crowded rock concert, C) at a ski lodge, D) at a gun show.

hostile attribution bias

Tendency to interpret ambiguous behaviors as aggressive or having hostile intent.

larger

Aggressive children show [smaller/larger] hostile attribution biases than less aggressive children

deliberate and intentional

People who tend to exhibit hostile attribution bias assume that when someone does something to hurt them, that it was______________- particularly in ambiguous situations

cognitive control

Alcohol, like high arousal, can impair the _________ of aggression.

reducing anxiety

Alcohol increases aggression by________ , which lowers inhibitions against aggression

reinforcement (direct)

Two types of learning of aggression: 1) _________, 2) imitation (indirect learning)

imitation (indirect learning)

Two types of learning of aggression: 1) reinforcement (direct), 2) _________

produces

Positive reinforcement of aggression: aggression _______desired outcomes.

prevents (stops)

Negative reinforcement of aggression: aggression ______ undesirable outcomes.

social learning theory

Theory that says we learn from the examples of others, as well as from direct experience with rewards and punishments (Bandura).

the same

Modelling of aggression has a stronger effect on learning if the adult modelling the aggressive behavior is of [the same/a different] gender as the learner

construct aggressive "scripts" (learn specific aggressive behaviors)

By watching aggressive models, people: 1) __________, 2) develop more positive attitudes and beliefs about aggression in general

develop more positive attitudes and beliefs about aggression in general

By watching aggressive models, people: 1) construct aggressive "scripts" (learn specific aggressive behaviors), 2) __________

decrease

Nonaggressive models [decrease/increase] aggressive behavior

honor, status

In a culture of honor, emphasis is placed on________ and _________, particularly for males and the role of aggression in protecting it.

arguments, felonies, towns

In an analysis of homicides in the US, the south east region had higher incidences of homicides resulting from _________, compared with homicides resulting from _________, when compared with the rest of the US, and this phenomenon was stronger in [towns/cities]

do not

In the US, southerners [do/ do not] endorse violence more than northerners in general terms

are

In the US, southerners [are/ are not] more likely to use violence for protection or in response to insults in comparison to northerners.

fewer restrictions on gun ownership

List the evidence contained in laws and social policies for the culture of honor in the southern, 1) _________, 2) shoot first ask questions later, 3) corporal punishment of children, 4) support for US involvement in wars.

shoot first ask questions later

List the evidence contained in laws and social policies for the culture of honor in the southern, 1) fewer restrictions on gun ownership, 2) _________, 3) corporal punishment of children, 4) support for US involvement in wars.

corporal punishment of children

List the evidence contained in laws and social policies for the culture of honor in the southern, 1) fewer restrictions on gun ownership, 2) shoot first ask questions later, 3) _________, 4) support for US involvement in wars.

support for US involvement in wars

List the evidence contained in laws and social policies for the culture of honor in the southern, 1) fewer restrictions on gun ownership, 2) shoot first ask questions later, 3) corporal punishment of children, 4) _________.

TRUE

[True/False] Men are more violent than women in virtually every culture studied around the world.

testosterone

After being shoulder-bumped by an oncoming pedestrian, participants in a U of Michigan study who grew up in the south had a significantly higher __________ hormonal response than those who grew up in the north

lower

After being shoulder-bumped by an oncoming pedestrian, participants in a U of Michigan study who grew up in the south rated their masculinity significantly [lower/higher] than those who grew up in the north.

indirectly, relationally

Girls often are more________, or_________, aggressive than boys

higher

The number of man-man murders is much [lower/higher] than woman-woman murders

indirectly, physically

Women more likely to be _________aggressive, men more likely to be _______ aggressive

overt

_______aggression tends to be more socially acceptable in stereotypically male roles than female roles

40

Percentages of violence on TV is initiated by people portrayed as heroes

8,000, 100,000

By the end of elementary school, a typical American child will have seen _______ murders on TV and more than _______ other acts of violence

goes up

When TV is introduced into societies, violence [goes up/doesn't change]

modeling

How Does Exposure to Media Violence Have Long-Term Effects? 1) ________, 2) desensitization, 3) values and expectations are changed

desensitization

How Does Exposure to Media Violence Have Long-Term Effects? 1) modeling, 2) ________, 3) values and expectations are changed

values and expectations are changed (see the world as more violent than it is)

How Does Exposure to Media Violence Have Long-Term Effects? 1) modeling, 2) desensitization, 3) ________

D

In which context are males more aggressive than females? A) when examining homicide rates, B) In cultures of honor, C) When looking at indirect relational aggression, d) A and B, e) A and C

much more

Rapists and child molesters use porn [much less/less/ the same amount / more/ much more] than men who are not sexual offenders.

nine

In Hawaii, rapes rose _____ fold between 1960-74, dropped with law change, then rose again when law was lifted.

are not (studies show that on average when their honor is threatened they are more aggressive)

Southerners [are/ are not] more likely to engage in aggression generally.

rape (it appears that it is not explicitly sex per se, but aggression with the sex that leads to violence )

What did researchers find in the study where men were angered by a female accomplice then either watched a neutral, erotic, or aggressive-erotic (rape) film? In a supposedly unrelated study later, the researchers found that men who had watched the [neutral/erotic/rape] film gave stronger shocks to female target.

scripts

In class, we talked about the social learning theory for aggression. What were two things discussed as to what people get from watching aggressive models? 1) _________, 2) positive associations with aggression

positive associations with aggression

In class, we talked about the social learning theory for aggression. What were two things discussed as to what people get from watching aggressive models? 1) scripts, 2) _________

C

A study by Cohen and colleagues (1996) showed that when participants were first "accidentally" bumped, then called a disrespectful name, Northerners tend to act ____ and southerners act ____, A) more aggressive; less aggressive, B) more assertive; less assertive, C) less aggressive; more aggressive

B (note: women are more compliant, not more obedient)

Which are variables affecting obedience? A) women, compared to men, are more likely to be obedient, B) presence of rebellious models drops obedience levels, C) when the research takes place in warehouse, obedience increases, D) both A & B

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