People who wanted to restore and rebuild the South. They were considered traitors because they favored Radical Republicans.
President who took office after Lincoln's death. His reconstruction plan required a majority of voters in each southern state to swear loyalty to the United States.
Rutherford B. Hayes
The first post-Reconstruction president. He agreed to end reconstruction if southern democrats supported him.
They believed that Southern democrats or former Confederates who should be barred (forbidden) from Congress. They also favored giving rights to the freedmen because they would vote for them in office. Over time, they began to lose power because many northerners lost interest in changing the south.
The Ku Klux Klan. They wanted to keep African Americans out of office. They went to harsh extremes with their hate for others. (murder, whipping)
Became locked in a "cycle of poverty" because they did not earn enough money to pay their debts.
To rebuild. Reconstruction governments were being set up in the South because at the end of the Civil War, they had ruined cities and plantations that needed rebuilding. Therefore, reconstruction goverments in the South were set up in order to build public schools, improve medical care, and pass high tax measures.
The separation of African Americans and whites. Example: both groups attended separate schools.
These reading and writing tests were used to make it difficult for uneducated freedmen to vote.
Laws that excused a voter from the literacy test if his father or grandfather had been entitled to vote on January 1, 1867.
Provided food, clothing, medical care, and shelter to former slaves. Also sent agents to set up schools for the former slaves.
Strict laws which severely restricted (did not allow) the rights of freedmen. (Example: They couldn't carry firearms, they could not assemble in groups, they could not stay out past a certain time, etc.)
Election of 1876
This ended the Reconstruction period. Hayes agreed to end this time period if the Southern Democrats supported him.
Plessy v. Ferguson
A court case that ruled that segregation was LEGAL, where there were separate but equal facilities (places).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Stated that there shall be NO MORE SEPARATE FACILITIES (places).
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Divided the South into five military districts AND that southern states had to ratify (approve) the 14th amendment in order to rejoin the Union.