Reconstruction Exam

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Freedmen

Freed slaves who lived in the South.

Scalawags

People who wanted to restore and rebuild the South. They were considered traitors because they favored Radical Republicans.

Conservatives

People who wanted to preserve the power of the white people.

Carpetbaggers

Northerners who moved south after the Civil War.

Andrew Johnson

President who took office after Lincoln's death. His reconstruction plan required a majority of voters in each southern state to swear loyalty to the United States.

Rutherford B. Hayes

The first post-Reconstruction president. He agreed to end reconstruction if southern democrats supported him.

Ulysses S. Grant

A former general who became president in 1868.

Radical Republicans

They believed that Southern democrats or former Confederates who should be barred (forbidden) from Congress. They also favored giving rights to the freedmen because they would vote for them in office. Over time, they began to lose power because many northerners lost interest in changing the south.

K.K.K.

The Ku Klux Klan. They wanted to keep African Americans out of office. They went to harsh extremes with their hate for others. (murder, whipping)

sharecroppers

Became locked in a "cycle of poverty" because they did not earn enough money to pay their debts.

Reconstruction

To rebuild. Reconstruction governments were being set up in the South because at the end of the Civil War, they had ruined cities and plantations that needed rebuilding. Therefore, reconstruction goverments in the South were set up in order to build public schools, improve medical care, and pass high tax measures.

ratify

To approve something (example: approving the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments)

veto

To forbid something from becoming a law. (The president has the power to veto!)

impeach

To bring up on charges.

Segregation

The separation of African Americans and whites. Example: both groups attended separate schools.

literacy tests

These reading and writing tests were used to make it difficult for uneducated freedmen to vote.

Poll tax

Required a voter to pay a certain amount of money each time he voted.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws that segregated (separated) blacks and whites in public places.

Grandfather Clause

Laws that excused a voter from the literacy test if his father or grandfather had been entitled to vote on January 1, 1867.

Freedmen's Bureau

Provided food, clothing, medical care, and shelter to former slaves. Also sent agents to set up schools for the former slaves.

Black Codes

Strict laws which severely restricted (did not allow) the rights of freedmen. (Example: They couldn't carry firearms, they could not assemble in groups, they could not stay out past a certain time, etc.)

Election of 1876

This ended the Reconstruction period. Hayes agreed to end this time period if the Southern Democrats supported him.

Plessy v. Ferguson

A court case that ruled that segregation was LEGAL, where there were separate but equal facilities (places).

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

Stated that there shall be NO MORE SEPARATE FACILITIES (places).

13th Amendment

Freed the slaves

14th Amendment

Provided citizenship to all persons born in the United States

15th Amendment

Gave African American men the right to vote.

Reconstruction Act of 1867

Divided the South into five military districts AND that southern states had to ratify (approve) the 14th amendment in order to rejoin the Union.

Former Confederate Officers

These individuals could NOT serve in southern governments.

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