the process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed.
the nonacademic socialization and training that take place in the schooling system.
any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others.
a way of dividing students into different classes by ability or future plans.
an overemphasis on credentials (e.g., college degrees) for signaling social status or qualifications for a job.
a set of policies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population—typically, women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities.
an individual's position in a stratified social order.
symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations.
when members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes.
14% of Americans are ______ _____.
having insufficient math skills to function in society.
22% of Americans are ______ ______.
knowledge and skills that make someone more productive and bankable.
1966, school resources had no effect on student achievement, but family and peers did.
Catholic private, secular private, public
test score ranking by school
dividing students into different classes according to ability or future plans
symbolic and interactional resources that people inherit and use to their advantage
cultural abilities or skills, "within you"
cultural objects you own or can access, "through a tool"
educational creditials, "valued by institution"
African-Americans & Hispanics
score lower on cognitive SATs, have higher rates of being left back, suspended, or expelled.
have higher GPAs and college attendence
Black-White Achievement Gap
fear of being accused of "acting white", genetic differences in intelligence (a lot of evidence against this theory)
self-fulfilling prophecy; process that occurs when behavior is modified to meet pre-existence expectations; how you treat students effects how they perform.
when members of a stigmatized group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes.
predicts college outcomes, but only for white students; scores associated with race, ethnicity, and and SES; correlation with family background.