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Glossary of Terms for GCSE ICT UNIT 1 Revision

Backup

A copy of data that is made in case the original data is lost or damaged. The backup can be used to restore the original data.

Bandwidth

The amount of data that can fit though an Internet connection. Measured in bits per second (bps).Kbps = kilobits per second / Mbps = Mega bits per second.

Biometrics

An automated method of recognising a person based on physical characteristics. Among the features measured are face, fingerprints, hand geometry, iris and voice

Blog

Short for 'web log', a shared online journal where people can post diary entries about their personal experiences and hobbies

Bluetooth

Allows the exchange of data over short distances from fixed and mobile devices. In order for devices to communicate they must be able to understand Bluetooth rules (protocols)

Blu-ray

A disk that enables the recording, rewriting and play back of high-definition video and the storing of large amounts of data. It has more than 5 times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single layer disk and 50 GB on a dual layer disk.

Boolean Operators

Used in advanced searching on the Internet. AND, OR or NOT. Use "speech marks" to identify whole phrases

Broadband

A high speed connection to the Internet

Captcha Test

A challenge test used to prevent automated software from filling in the online form

CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The CPU is the brains of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the central processor, but more commonly called processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. In terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important element of a computer system. Its performance is measured in gigahertz (GHz). The faster the performance, the more power it uses. This is an important consideration when buying a portable device.

Cloud computing

A system in which all computer programs and data is stored on a central server owned by a company (e.g. Google) and accessed virtually

Collaboratively

Working together to achieve common goals

Compatible / Compatibility

The ability of a device to communicate and share information with another device

Content Network

Being part of a Content Network enables an advert to be displayed on a huge number of sites other than just in a search engineYou can use this as a business to advertise on other sites relevant to your business and attract new customers

Convergence

When one device is developed to carry out functions that were performed by several different devices

Cookies

A small text file which stores information related to your Internet activity and then reports this back to the website server. They are used legitimately by website creators to enable websites to be customised for individual users e.g customise your BBC homepage

Copyright

Gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights regarding that work for a certain period of time, including its publication, distribution and adaptation

Covert

Covert Data Collection - Collecting information about people without their knowledge (Spyware)

Credit card

A plastic card, issued by banks, building societies, retail stores and other businesses, which enable a person to buy goods and services without the need for cash. The holder agrees to pay back the money borrowed at a later date, sometimes with interest.

Cyber cafe

A cafe or coffee shop that has a number of personal computers connected to the Internet and available for use by customers. Most charge by he hour or fraction of an hour

Data

Symbols, characters, images and numbers are all types of data. When data is processed and acquires meaning it becomes information. Computers process data to produce information

Debit card

Similar to a credit card but the money is taken directly from the holders bank account

Desktop computer

A stationary computer usually consisting of a tower and separate monitor. It is generally more powerful and has a large storage capacity than a portable computer

Digital Divide

This is the gap between people in society who cannot or do not have effective access to digital technology and those who do. Because of the importance of technology in modern life, people who do not have access to it can be disadvantaged in many ways.

Digital product

A product produced using ICT tools and viewed on-screen. It does not need to be printed out

Digital Rights Management (DRM)

Allows the copyright holder or the owner of the media control over the number of viewings, plays and copies, and even which devices the media can be played or views on. IF you download a film from ITunes you cannot burn it on to a DVD because of the DRM encoded in the film

Disaster Recovery

The policies and procedures that a company or organisation has in place so it can carry on with normal business after a disaster, such as a major ICT failure, a fire etc

Dongle

A small piece of hardware that connects to a computer and has uses including data storage and picking up Bluetooth and 3G signals. A dongle may be portable like a USB pen

Download

Transfer of a file e.g. a video from a central computer to your computer

E-commerce

Buying and selling goods electronically usually over the Internet

Emoticon

The use of icons or text to portray mood or facial expression

Encryption

For security, data is translated into a secret code according to a set of rules in a special 'key'. To convert the data back into plain text, the receiver must also have the key

Ergonomics

The science of designing safe and comfortable machines and furniture for humans.

Etiquette

A set of rules that people try to abide by out of respect for other people around them.

File Format e.g. mp3/mp4

The particular code that the file is stored in. Different software and devices use different formats which can cause problems if a device cannot decode the information

Firewall

A system designed to prevent unauthorised access to your computer when connected to a network such as the Internet

Flash memory card

Used for fast and easily transferable information storage in digital devices such as mobile phones, media players and cameras. Flash memory is known as a solid state storage device meaning there are no moving parts. Everything is electronic instead of mechanical and so it is ideal for mobile devices

Forum

Allows users to get together for open discussions. General and specialist forums can be useful if you have a question you want to post as other users can respond with answers or advice.

Fraud

Tricking someone for personal gain or to damage them

Future proofing

Anticipating future developments when you buy something in the hope that is will not go out of date quickly. Future proofing can be expensive, as buying something top of the range will cost more than if you wait a short while

Geotag

To attach the exact geographical coordinates of longitude and latitude to a digital image giving the location of where it was taken

Globalisation

The increasing integration of economies and societies around the world particularly through international trade

Global Positioning System (GPS)

A navigational system used in many devices which Gives current location, directions from current location to a specified destination and distance from current location to specified destination using signals from satellites. Assisted GPS (AGPS) is a technology that has been built into mobile phones. When the signal between a mobile phone and satellites is weak, the signal is diverted to a mobile mast which identify the phones exact location and allow the used to carry on using the feature

Hackers

People who try to get access to your computer without your permission in order to steal information which they could use for malicious or criminal purposes.

Hard Disk/Drive

This stores all the software, files and data. Its size is measured in bytes (usually gigabytes). The bigger it is the more data can be stored. Images and media files require a lot of file space.

Hardware

The physical parts of a computer system e.g. the CPU and the devices connected to it

HDMI (High definition multimedia Interface)

Required for connecting devices to show high-definition video

HDTV

High definition TV

HD (High Definition)

The picture on a TV screen is made of lines of pixels. In a conventional TV there are 625 lines which are refreshed 25 times per second. HD has either 720 or 1080 lines so it produces a clearer sharper picture

Hot desking

Sharing desks or workstations between workers as a way of saving space and resources

Hotspot

A venue that offers a WiFi Internet connection. Many are located in hotels and restaurants and lots of them are free

Identity Theft

A crime that involves someone pretending to be another person in order to steal money or obtain benefits

IMAP4

Internet Message Access Protocol 4 allows users to get the email into their inbox or phone straight away without having to login. The emails stay on the ISP server from which they are accessed

Information Overload

Having so much information available that the user feels overwhelmed and is unable to take any of it in possibly leading to stress

ISP Internet Service Provider

AS company that provides Internet access to its customers

IP (Internet Protocol) address

The personal address of your computer (just like your home address) so that servers know where to send the information you have requested

Laptop Computer

A portable computer designed to fit on the lap. Carries out same functions as a desktop computer but in a compact version that is light enough to be carried

Latency

The time delay between the moment something is initiated and the moment it becomes detectable

Legislation

Laws applied to ICTComputer Misuse ActData Protection ActHealth and SafetyDigital Rights ManagementCopyright, Designs and Patents Act

License

Having a software licence means that you have legitimately purchased the software and are legally allowed to use it.When purchasing software users normally have to purchase a licence which gives details of the copyright of the software. The user must accept the terms and conditions of the software licence before they can use it.

Malware

Software that is designed to cause problems for users

Metadata

Provides information about the content of a digital item e.g. each digital images from a digital camera has a file attached listing such things as date, time camera and shutter speed

Memory

This usually refers to RAM (Random Access Memory). This temporary memory used to run programs that are open on the computer. The higher the RAM, the more programs you can run at one time and the faster they will respond. Graphics and videos require a lot of RAM.

Microchip

A miniature electronic circuit used to control computers and most other electronic devices

MMS

Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS, is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from mobile phones. It extends the core SMS (Short Message Service) capability that allowed exchange of text messages only up to 160 characters in length.

Mobile Broadband

Allows devices such as smart phones, laptops and netbooks to connect to a high speed Internet connection over a wide geographical area, without the need for wiresRelies on the 3G mobile phone signal/network, the same technology used by 3G mobile phonesMobile Broadband is an alternative to Wifi/Hotspot Internet Access

Multifunctional

Having the ability to do many different things using the same device

Multimedia

A combination of different content types such as text, audio, still images, animation and video

Multitask

To perform more than one task at the same time

Netbook

A small portable laptop computer designed for wireless communication and access to the Internet

Network

Devices connected together to allow communication and exchange of data

Network Band

Mobile phones operate on different frequencies in different countries. To be able to connect with a phone on a different frequency, the phone needs to be able to receive one or more frequencies. A phone can be:Dual band - picking up 2 frequenciesTri band - picking up 3 frequenciesQuad band - picking up 4 frequenciesHaving a quad-band phone allows you to use it in 5 different countries

Notebook

Similar to a laptop but even more compact

Online banking

A service offered by banks that allows account holders to view their account information online and carry out various financial transactions

Online forum

An online message board where people can share ideas and views

Open Source Software

Software that is available to download free of charge e.g. OpenOffice.org which is a suite of applications

Optical Drive

This uses lasers to read data from CDs and DVDs. Some allow you to record data to CDs and DVDs.(commonly referred to as CD / DVD Drive). Useful for installing software.

Outsourcing

Using and external service provider to carry out a business function

Overheads

The ongoing expenses of operating a business e.g. rent fuel bills salaries etc

Overt

Overt Data Collection - If you knowingly give companies your information e.g "Tick here if you do not want to receive details of our latest offers" (also see cookies)

PDA (Personal Digital Assistant)

A portable device that is small enough to hold in the palm of your hand. Usually contains an address book, note making features, telephone and Internet facilities. Allows data to be exchanged with computers

Peer to Peer (P2P)

Sharing files among groups of people who are logged onto a file sharing network

Peripherals

External devices connected to a computer e.g. printer, microphone (Can be split into INPUT / OUTPUT / STORAGE devices)

Personalised Learning

Learning that is tailored towards the individual to allow them to make progress

Phishing

A form of Internet Fraud that aims to steal valuable information such as credit card details usernames and passwords. Involves sending a link via an email to a website which looks like a genuine website but in fact is bogus. The recipient may be tricked into following the link and entering details such as bank passwords or personal information

Picture Resolution

This is measured in pixels or megapixels and refers to the quality and detail that can be shown on the screen of a mobile phone

PIN (Personal Identification Number)

A type of password applied to a credit or debit card

Plagiarism

Copying someone else's work and presenting it as your own

Podcasts

A non-streamed media file that is usually part of a series or set of episodes. A podcast is more correctly referred to as a webcast.

POP3

POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) requires users to access their email by logging on to their mail account. Emails can be downloaded to their computer and are removed from the ISP server.

Portable Computer

Designed to allow the user to use the computer on the move e.g. laptop notebook Netbook and PDA

Presence Awareness

A common IM feature that gives you a quick view of the people who are logged on at that time

Primary source

Information or data that you collected yourself

Primary storage

Built-in storage designed to be directly accessed by the central processing unit (CPU)

Privacy Policy

Describes how a company or organisation will use the data a user provides. It is a legal document and plays a part in the Data Protection Act.

Protocol

A set of rules used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. Without protocol computers would not be able to communicate effectively

Public Domain

Materials that are available for anyone to use for any purpose (not subject to laws of copyright) - see Open Source Software

RAID

Redundant Array of Independent/Inexpensive Disks) - A hard disk drive where data is written on to lots of disks at the same time. If one disk gets damaged data can be accessed from another disk

RAM (Random Access Memory)

This temporary memory used to run programs that are open on the computer. The higher the RAM, the more programs you can run at one time and the faster they will respond. Graphics and videos require a lot of RAM.

Real time

The actual time during which something takes pace, without noticeable delays

Remotely

From a different location - work together using ICT you can work remotely

Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)

Damage caused to the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves or joints, usually because of repeating the same action

RFID

Radio Frequency Identification tags/microchips are everywhere . Inside these tiny tags is a predetermined code which can be read by an RFID reader. These are used in credit cards, badges, passports, pet tracking just to name a few

Ripping

The process of copying audio or video content to a hard disk drive, typically from removable media such as a CD

RSS Feed

most commonly expanded as Really Simple Syndication - give you live updates direct to your desktop

Sat nav

A device usually used in a car, that gives directions based on information received from a series of satellites

SD and SDHC cards

Secure digital (SD) cards are one type of flash memory card which store up to 2 GB of data. Secure digital High Capacity (SDHC) cards are another type of flash memory and they are ideal for video cameras because they can store up to 32 GB of data

Secondary source

Info or data that has been produced by someone else

Secondary Storage

Storing data on another device such as a CD or USB pen

SSL Secure Sockets Layer

A method of encrypting data to provide security for communications over networks such as the Internet. TLS (Transport Layer Security) is a later version on SSL

Smart Phone

A phone offering advanced features e.g. the ability to send emails, surf the Internet

SMS

Short Message Service (SMS) is the text communication service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems

Social Bookmarking

Social bookmarking adds a button to your browser. When you add a link those links can be seen by others who have subscribed to your social bookmarking e.g. http://www.delicious.com/

Software

Programs that give instructions to a computer and which allow the user to carry out different tasks

SaaS (Software as a Service)

Pay for software as you use it. Not installed locally, instead it is 'Hosted'software e.g. Google Docs

Spam

It is all the unwanted email such as unsolicited commercial email, unsolicited bulk email and chain letters.

Spyware

A computer program which is installed without permission, sometimes through a virus or sometimes as part of the installation of a program. It works by collecting information and sending it back to another source. The information collected could include the websites you have been visiting or what you have been downloading. This can be used for marketing purposes but also for fraud.

Streaming

Content is sent in compressed form over the Internet and displayed by the viewer in real time. When streaming video a web user does not have to wait to download a file to play it. Instead the media is sent in a continuous stream of data and is played as it arrived on a special player

TB Terabyte

1000 gigabytes

Teleworking

Working from home but staying in touch with others with the help of technology

Third Generation (3G)

Third generation (3G) wireless communication allows high-speed wireless data transfer

Third Party Payment processor

A business that offers customers an alternative fast, safe method pay for online goods and services e.g. Paypal

Trojan / Trojan Horse

A program that appears legitimate but performs some harmful activity when it is run. It may be used to locate password information or make the system more vulnerable to future entry or simply destroy programs or data on the hard disk. It is similar to a virus, except that it does not replicate itself or reproduce by infecting other files. It stays in the computer doing its damage or allowing somebody from a remote site to take control of the computer. It often sneak in attached to a free game.

Upload

Transfer a file from your computer to a central computer e.g. your ISP

USB (Universal Serial Bus)

A standard method of connecting devices such as keyboard and printers to a computer

UPS

Uninterruptable Power Supply - a device connected to the network that gives additional battery power to the ICT equipement in the event of a power cut, giving Network Managers time to power down the pcs in structured way

Validation

The process of checking that the data entered is reasonable or one of the expected options e.g. that a person's age has not been entered as 200 (e.g. Drop down lists in a form)

Verification

The process of checking that the data entered is accurate. The data could be valid but still inaccurate e.g. someone could enter the wrong password or email address so you ask them to 'conform' it

Viral Marketing

A marketing strategy that encourages people to pass on marketing message to their friends. It uses interesting and entertaining content that people will want to share eg. Cadbury Gorilla. Viral marketing uses multimedia to make the message memorable

Virus

A program that can infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the user. It can damage the system's setting and memory, generating error messages and causing the computer to malfunction

VLE

Virtual Learning Environment

VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)

This technology is used to make telephone calls via the Internet usually at a cheaper cost

Web app (web application)

Any application that can be accessed using a web browser. The application can be as simple as a message board or guest sign-in page on a website or as complex as a spreadsheet

WiFi

Wireless fidelity. Similar to Bluetooth in that it is used to exchange data but the signals can travel further distances

Wiki

A type of website that encourages collaboration by allowing users to add edit and remove content

Worm

Similar to a virus, but it has the capability to travel without any human action so it can infect many computers. It is able to replicate itself and can use the email address book to send itself to everyone listed. It consumes system memory to do this and slows down the computer or the network.

3G

Third generation wireless communication technology allows high speed wireless data transfer

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