Streptococcus Pyogenes: GAS, G+, beta hemolytic
M Proteins, Hyaluronic acid capsule, Protein G, and C5a peptidase
Red throat with white patches, fever, inflammation
Respiratory droplets, antibiotics
Fever with red tongue/rash production of erythrogenic toxin (superantigen)
Acute Rheumatic Fever
Type II Hypersensivity when M protein antibodies bind to heart valves. Cause heart disease in young.
Type III Hypersensitivity when immune complexes deposit in the kidneys
Corneybacterium diphtheriae: G+ aerobic nonmotile rod with A-B toxin produced after lysogenic conversion
Sore throat, fever, psuedomembrane after toxin is disseminated through the body and stops protein synthesis causing degenerative changes in tissues.
TDaP antitoxin immunity
Rhino Virus: naked RNA, ID50=1, antigenic shift and antigenic drift
No fever, symptoms result from loss of ciliary action
Contact and respiratory droplets
Cleared by innate immune system
Adenovirus: DNA virus
Similar to strep but last 1-3 weeks
Strep. pneumoniae: G+ diplococci with capsule
Rust colored sputum, single shaking chill, shortness of breath caused by colonization of alveoli
2 conjugated vaccines for 23 different
Klebsiella pneumoniae: G- rod with capsule, endotoxin, antibiotic resistance with transposons
Fever, chills, grossly bloody mucoid sputum due to destruction of lung tissues. Endotoxic shock if in blood stream
No vaccine, increasing antibiotic resistance
Mycoplasma pneumoniae: no cell wall with long incubation periods
Gradual onset of symptoms, "walking pneumonia" due to inhibition of cilliary motion
Respiratory droplets and antibiotics (non-cell wall)
Pertussis or Whooping Cough
Bordetella pertussis: G- rod with capsule, fimbriae, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin (A-B), and tracheal cytotoxin (NO- cell death)
Spasms of violent coughing in catarrhal stage and paroxysmal stage due to accumulation of mucus. Brain damage possible in infants.
Respiratory droplets and TDaP vaccine (acellular pertussis)
M. tuberculosis: obligate aerobic rod that is acid fast with the ability to live inside macrophages/slow gen time
Chronic fever, weight loss, cough, sputum production from active infection when latent infection in granuloma ruptures
DOTS therapy (months, medically supervised)
Influenza Virus: segmented RNA virus with envelope. Hemagglutinin spikes for binding and Neuraminidase spikes for release.
Symptoms include fever, malaise, and peak in 6-12 hours due to destruction of cells. Secondary infections possible.
Annual vaccine for IgA production
Coccidiodies immitis: dimorphic fungi found in the desert of the Western hemisphere
Fever, cough, chest pain when arthroconidia are inhalaed. Spherules form.
H. capsulatum: dimorphic fungi found in Mississippi
Milder symptoms and predominant disease of immunocompromised and spelunkers
Endospores inhaled and change into yeast form, multiply in macrophages, and cause granulomas
Spread by bird/bat feces
S. aureus - coagulase positive which produce pimples, boils, and carbuncles.
Scalded Skin Syndrome
S. aureus strains that produce exfoliatin toxin
Red rash, sand paper texture, fever, lg blisters, peeling of the skin that can causes secondary infections due to compromised innate immune system.
Transmitted person to person
Isolation and treatment
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
R. rickettsia: obligate intracellular, G- coccobacilli, in wood and dog ticks from Southeast.
Headache, pain, fever, followed by hemorrhagic rash begins on the extremities. After 3 days, DIC -- shock and bleeding due to endotoxin
Removal of tick in 4-10 hours, antibioitics, test for organisms at the site of rash
B. burgdorferi: spirochete with G- walls spread by deer ticks in New England, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. Linear chromosome.
Early localized: bullseye rash, flu-like
Early disseminated: electrical misconductions, dizzy and fainting
Late persistent: arthritis, joint pain, swelling tenderness, chronic nervous system impairments, can't be treated with antibiotics
Removal 36 hours, antibiotics early.
Varicella-zoster virus enveloped dsDNA
Itchy bumps, blisters, fever (throat - lymph nodes - virions cause lesions - latent in nerve cells)
Respiratory droplets, vaccine, acyclovir
Congenital Varicella Syndrome
TORCH: threat to neonate and fetus if pregnant when infected. Virus can cross placenta.
Debilitating pain that can persist. In HIV patients, it spreads to the whole body. Reactivated virus spreads along nerve.
Children (5 to 15) given aspirin with fever comes down with Reye's -- 30% mortality rate
Rubeola virus: enveloped RNA virus with hemagglutinin and fusion protein
Rash (inflammatory response), fever, weepy eyes, cough, and nasal discharge, Koplik's spots are diagnostic (red patches with white spot on oral mucosa), suppress immune system
Attenuated MMR Vaccine (no <1 years)
Rubella Virus: enveloped RNA virus with hemagglutinin
slight fever, cold symptoms, faint rash on face, chest and abdomen, long incubation period
Respiratory and self-limiting
Congenital Rubella Syndrome
TORCH - severe deformities that are more severe early in pregnancies, infection in the first trimester, vaccine aids in prevention
Helicobacter pylori: short spiral G- with polar flagella, urease, and CagA
Ulcers, abdominal pain, tenderness and bleeding.
Mumps Virus: enveloped RNA virus
Inflammation of the parotid glands, fever, meningitis, more sever in individuals past puberty, orchitis, inflammation of ovaries, and sometimes sterility.
Attenuated MR Vaccine