Sociology Final

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All except one of the following are included in culture. Which one should not be included?

reproduction

___________ is/are essential in developing culture.

Language

Symbolic interaction theory addresses:

the subjective meaning of human acts and the processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings.

Herbert Spencer believed that societies evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capable and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. What term did Spencer use to describe this process?

the survival of the fittest

A teenager's parents divorce and as a result neither parent has much time to spend with her. She has the freedom to do whatever she wants, whenever she wants, with little regulations. Unable to cope with the many changes, she takes her own life. This is _______ suicide.

anomic.

Karl Marx maintained that ____________ was the driving force that let to social change.

class conflict

Leon is visiting Napel and is feeling disoriented and unable to depend on his taken-for-granted assumptions about life. This sense of disorientation is an example of ______________.

culture shock

What sociological concept explains why natives in remote South American jungles can be found using metal cooking pots and Americans can be found eating Chinese food in Chicago?

cultural diffusion

Consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor recognized are referred to by sociologists as:

latent functions or dysfunctions

Americans cherish the ideal that anyone can rise from the bottom of society to its very top. What value identified by Robin Williams is illustrated by this belief?

individualism

Norms with moral or religious significance that are thought to be important to society are known as:

mores

The focus of sociology is on:

the systematic study of human groups

Which term describes a group that has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society?

subculture

What is the term used to describe feelings of disorientation and confusion when encountering values, behaviors, and expectations totally different from those to which one is accustomed?

culture shock

What is another name for the research method that is referred to as "participant observation" ?

fieldwork

Macrosociology is NOT associated with which of the following?

symbolic interaction theory

Which of the following refers to the use of one's own culture as a yard stick to evaluate another culture?

Ethnocentrism.

Recently, Marie went on a tour of the Arab countries. At the end of the tour, she wanted to offer a gift to her Arab tour guide. Marie offered the gift with her left hand as her right hand was full at the time. She did not understand why the guide appeared to be offended with her. This is an example of _____________.

necessity to learn the gestures of a culture

Which of the following is an example of a hypothesis?

You can catch more files with honey than you can with vinegar.

Ethnocentrism:

is a natural and in some ways desirable product of growing up in a culture.

The founder of sociology was:

Auguste Comte

The ability to see the intimate realitites of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what C. Wright Mills refers to as:

the sociological imagination

What sociological concept is illustrated by the adoption of Western dress and culture in Japan, the presence of McDonald's restaurants in Moscow and Hong Kong, and Chinese restaurants in Chicago and Manhattan?

cultural leveling

What is the American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?

freedom

What form of the nonmaterial culture is illustrated by shaking one's head left and right to mean "no" and up and down to mean "yes"?

gestures

_________ are considered useful shorthand ways to convey messages without using words.

Gestures

In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a ________.

subculture

When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of ________.

cultural diffusion

The principle "survival of the fittest" is attributed to

Herber Spencer

What is a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought?

language

In a four-square block section of midtown Manhattan, it is possible to purchase a bagel with cream cheese, eat stir-fried vegetables prepared in a wok, or dine on raw fish in a sushi bar. What does this range of culinary possibilities illustrate?

cultural diffusion

According to C.. Wright Mills, the difficulties that John and Mary experience in their marriage represent a personal trouble. The fact that nearly 1 marriage out of every 2 marriages ends in divorce, however, is:

a public issue

Who was the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from Harvard University?

W. E. B. DuBois

When sociologists use the phrase the culture within us, what do they mean?

Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions.

Jane Addams is remembered for

founding Hull House

Which of the following are a society's rules of behavior?

Norms.

In American society, the commandment "Thou shalt not murder" belongs to which category?

mores.

Who was the 20th century sociologist who dismissed the organic analogy of society but maintained the essence of functionalism using the terms functions and dysfunctions to describe the consequences of people's actions?

Robert Merton

What social scientist proposed that societies evolve from a lower, barbaric form to a higher, civilized form in a process he called social Darwinism?

Herbert Spencer

What term describes a society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups?

a pluralistic society

Which term is used to describe a group's way of thinking, gestures, language, values and social norms?

nonmaterial culture

Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which of the following individuals would be the greatest suicide risk?

Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city

Sanctions refer to:

rewards for conformity and punishments for nonconformity.

Language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and material objects make up a _____________.

culture

Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between norms and laws?

Not all norms are supported by law and not all laws are supported by norms.

The argument that all other institutional arrangements in society arise out of economic relationships is known as

economic determinism.

When gathering data, the cause is known as the _________ and the effect is known as the ___________.

independent variable; dependent variable

Research undertaken on running a brothel, rioters, and the homeless is most likely to use which research strategy?

participant observation

According to ______________, class conflict is the key to human history.

Karl Marx

Merton used the term, __________, to refer to the intended consequences of people's actions

manifest functions

Which of the following is NOT one of the three steps in Cooley's "looking glass self" theory:

we can see ourselves exactly as others see us

What term describes people who share a culture and territory?

society

The position that an individual occupies is called his or her:

status

Being a mother is no guarantee that a woman will fulfill the duties and obligations associated with motherhood. This illustrates that:

people occupy statuses, but play roles

What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?

resocialization

What is the stage in the life course where individuals begin to reorient their thinking from the time since birth to the time left to live?

the later middle years

Efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us are called:

impression management

According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?

through play and social interaction

Which of the following is least representative of activity that would take place in a biotech society?

the mass production of industrial goods and conspicuous consumption

The family, religion, school & peers, mass media, neighborhood, and workplace are:

agents of socialization

Which is NOT true about anticipatory socialization?

usually possible to fully prepare in advance for new roles.

To show ourselves as adept role players and to gain recognition from others, we often use _________ or two or more people working together to make certain a performance goes off as planned.

teamwork

Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her___________ so others do not invade it.

personal space

Joshua would like to sleep but he knows that he should get up and go to class. He gets up, starts to get ready, decides today's lecture is not really that important, and crawls back into bed. He has followed his:

I.

As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?

gender socialization

Those expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are:

roles.

What conclusion did Harry and Margaret Harlow reach following their research efforts with monkeys?

Infant-mother bonding is the result of intimate physical contact.

Mead's term for role players with whom we have close personal relationships is:

significant others.

The image we have of ourselves based upon how we imagine others to view us is called:

looking glass self.

The idea of everyone having the same basic rights because they are born in a country is termed ___________ citizenship.

universal

Schools are principally responsible for what type of socialization that is needed for future roles?

anticipatory socialization

Role learning that programs individuals for roles they are likely to assume in the future is known as:

anticipatory socialization

Large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige are members of a social ________.

class

According to Mead, role taking begins when:

we learn the rights and duties associated with being a child in our family.

Statuses that we inherit at birth or receive that are related to the life course are termed _______ statuses.

ascribed

What term can be substituted for the term "operational" in Piaget's four-stage model, from the sensorimotor stage to the formal operational stage?

reasoning skills

A status that is optional, one that we can reach(or fail to reach) on the basis of our own efforts is called:

an achieved status

Devlin's parents are important influences on Devlin's life. Mead would use the term ___________ to refer to Devlin's parents.

significant others

Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?

academic journals

What was the first nation to enter the fourth social revolution?

United States

In Mead's theory, the "I" is

the spontaneous, creative part of the shelf.

What event ushered in the biotech society?

Crick and Watson identified the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953.

Professionals such as medical doctors and lawyers make it a point to have their offices appear neat and well organized. They are showing a concern for their:

front stage.

What are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a position a person occupies in life?

roles

Although Meagan is working in Pittsburgh, which is a dedicated Steeler football city, she always paints her fingernails deep purple and always wears a pin representing the Minnesota Vikings . What term describes what Meagan's deep purple fingernails and pin represent?

It is Meagan's personal identity kit.

Madeleine's position as president of the local university overshadows her work as a wife, mother, and volunteer for the Salvation Army. In view of this, university president is Madeleine's ________.

master status

What is an ascribed status?

A status that is inherited or involuntarily applied to an individual.

The Amish provide a good example of ___________ community.

Gemeinschaft

What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?

ascribed status

The level of sociological analysis that places emphasis on social interaction is:

microsociology.

Lateesha's father has her work part-time in the family store. "It will help you when you take over the business," he tells her. This is an example of:

anticipatory socialization

Family, religion, education, economics and politics are examples of

social institutions

Facilites in which all aspects of life are strictly controlled for the purpose of radical resocializations are called:

total institutions

Jimmy has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to strip naked and roll in a tub of mud. After the "mud bath" the fraternity brothers greeted Jimmy as a full brother and equal. What is another name for this rite of passage that Jimmy has just experienced?

a degradation ceremony

The significance of the first social revolution, the domestication of plants and animals, is that these changes set the stage for__________.

greater social inequality

When did the first social revolution occur?

approximately 10,000 years ago

According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?

Our self concept develops from interaction with others

Dramaturgy, an approach developed by symbolic interactionists, can best be described

An approach to analyzing social life in terms of the stage

Which sociologist developed the concept of looking-glass self?

Charles Horton Cooley

The ultimate back stage for most people is:

home

A complex organization with a hierarchy of authority and structure, rules and procedures is called

a bureaucracy

Groups in which the relationship is primarily impersonal and instrumental are known as

secondary groups

Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the following was not one of them

One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.

Al Capone, "Lucky" Luciano, John Gotti, and other heads of organized crime fall under which mode of adaptation?

innovator

Norm violations that exceed the tolerance level of the community and result in negative sanctions are:

deviance.

Which theory assumes that the higher rate of crime among the lower class is because of economic competition and inequality in society?

conflict theory

Which scientist would address the cause of deviance as being based on genetic predisposition and causes within the individual?

a sociobiologist

Structural-functional theory takes the position that:

law benefits society by helping to maintain order.

As a group becomes larger

the intensity decreases and the stability increases

Based on their relationship to sociological theory, which of the following theories of deviance least belongs with the other three?

The Theory of Differential Association

Max Weber included all of the following as characteristics of bureaucracy EXCEPT:

career advancement based on personality and individualism

Just going through the motions would be an illustration of which form of Merton's Strain Theory?

ritualism.

A complex organization characterized by explicit rules and hierarchial authority structure designed to maximize efficiency is known as a(n):

bureaucracy.

As group size increases it is less and less likely individuals will come forward to complete group tasks needing done unless specifically assigned to do so. What term describes this phenomenon of group dynamics?

diffusion of responsibility

_________ theory is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate ways of achieving them.

Merton's Strain

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of __________ theory.

labeling

Crimes committed by respectable people of high social status in the course of their occupations are known as:

white-collar crimes

Conflict theorists point out that the class differentials in crime rates develop partly because:

law enforcement discriminates more heavilhy against the poor

Which sociologist described primary groups as "the springs of life"?

Charles Horton Cooley

In bureaucracies, what term refers to rules and procedures that defy all logic?

red tape

________ are the category most likely to be able to successfully clain the sick role.

People in positions of power.

The crime with the highest recidivism rate is ________ and the crime with the lowest recidivism rate is ________.

stealing cars; murder

Since Frank graduated from high school he has held only seasonal and part-time jobs. Because he has few marketable skills he is the first to be laid off when he finds what may be a more permanent position. In view of this, how would a conflict theorist categorize Frank?

Frank is a member of the marginal working class

_________ groups are large, anonymous, formal, and impersonal.

Secondary

Alan, a 14-year-old boy, finds himself in a situation where he can steal a digital watch from a store. he decided against the theft because he fears what others will think of him if they knew. In theis situation, Alan conforms to society's values because of:

informal social controls

Which sociological perspective is most aligned with the relativity of deviance?

symbolic interactionist

Who is the psychiatrist who denounced the medicalization of deviance and proclaimed "mental illnesses are neither mental nor illnesses....they are problem behaviors"?

Thomas Szasz

Aggregates and groups:

differ in that people in groups feel a sense of idenity with one another while people in aggregates do not.

As a part of his court martial, Captain Savage was publicly stripped of his rank insignia, the buttons of his uniform were ripped off, and he was banished from the cavalry. What did this ritual following a court martial represent?

a degradation ceremony

Which of the following is NOT an example of a complex organization?

the population of China

Based on Merton's strain theory, drug addicts, alcoholics, the homeless, and others who have dropped out of the pursuit of success are engaged in which mode of adaptation?

retreatism

Who was the sociologist responsible for explaining the groupthink phenomenon?

Irving Janis

Individuals who share similar characteristics but do not interact would be an example of a(n)

category.

The army, the post office, colleges and General Motors:

are bureacracies

On the first Friday of every month Joseph stalks elderly women as they find a bank to cash their social security checks. After they leave the bank he snatches their purses, taking the cash. When asked by a fellow thug if he ever had second thoughts about stealing from the elderly, Joseph responded, "Never...these old biddies have money to burn...they'll never miss it. Besides, all they need to do is call the social security office and tell them what happened and they'll send them another check." Albeit the error of Joseph's reasoning, what technique of neutralization is Joseph utilizing to maintain a positive self-image?

denial of injury

This theory posits that internal and external constraints keep people from being deviant:

control theory

According to strain theory, the solution to deviance is to:

make it easier to reach societal goals through acceptable means.

Which leadership style will most likely result in a high degree of internal solidarity among employees?

authoritarian

Who was the "stigma master" who applied a typology of characteristics that discredit people from full social acceptance?

Erving Goffman

The BEST example of a primary group is:

a family

The links we have among other people, even friends of friends are called ________.

social networks

Frankie and Johnny enjoy hiding in the park and attacking gays who may be walking home from a local bar that caters to the gay community. They feel this is appropriate behavior because the Bible condemns homosexuality and gays should be punished. In view of this, which technique of neutralization are Frankie and Johnny employing to maintain a positive self-image?

denial of victim

What are the unwritten, taken-for-granted "rules" that underlie our everyday lives, such as not yelling "fire" in a crowded classroom or movie theater?

background assumptions

According to Structural Stain Theories, deviance occurs when:

people cannot reach the acceptable goals of society through acceptable means.

What is the classification of homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more separate events?

serial murder

When Corrinda's friends wouldn't talk to her because she tattled to the teacher about them, they were using________.

a negative sanction

What sociological term best describes lovers, cult members, and members of a combat infantry platoon?

a primary group

There are 35 cars backed up at the intersection because of an accident. Which sociological term best describes these 35 drivers?

an aggregate

Who was the sociologist who developed the Theory of Differential Association?

Edwin Sutherland

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