PS A333 Final

Created by ostrander 

Upgrade to
remove ads

52 terms

Machiavelli

Man is born alone

Hobbes

State of Nature is a state of war, need to escape

Locke

State of Nature can be peaceful, we have a duty to enforce, punish

Right to self protection
No common authority
Man is reasonable

Rousseau

SON is pre-moral
Developing stage w/ Hobbsean fighting
Only progress when you have to, when forces demand it

Kant

SON is a threat to the Social Contract
Pre-morality -> Morality

We had to go through non-morality

Unsocial Sociability
people want security and ind. life
forces competition, moves us from non-society

Marx

Man has no natural necessity
All necessity forced upon through property and money
Man is originally free

Nietzsche

All thought is culturally, historically conditioned

Capacity to creativity is natural, gaining knowledge is overcoming shame

Machiavelli

Authority based on fraud, strong provide security to weak, whom provide glory

Hobbes

Only goal of government/man is to seek peace
Self preservation
Rule through fear

Locke

Purpose of government is to protect property
Common laws / settled standing rules prevent arbitrary rule

Rousseau

Government equally restricts the rulers and ruled
Solution is the general will of the people, the difference of the individual wills that cancel eachother
No individual interests, only common
Gov't is always fraud, restricting freedom
Can only be legit

Kant

Reason is the basis for the social contract
Man has moral authority over himself
Morality fundamental to freedom

Hegel

Content of morality combined with right motives at end of history
No conflict between politics and morality
Rule from reason: no arbitrary laws
No restrictions on freedom

Marx

Solution to authority is communism
Revolution = the abolition of private property
Acquire property for individual will
Can no longer exploit; own labour

Nietzsche

Self preservation is result of will to power, not the main drive of humanity

Power over others less important than power over self

Machiavelli

Individuals have a necessity to acquire, unending process

Hobbes

No property in the SON, preservation of prop. comes from Government

Locke

Extension of personal autonomy, value is created through labour

Rousseau

Property is antithetical to freedom, beginning of the end
100% human convention
1st occupancy, add labour value
Human necessity unnatural, result of competition and differences

Kant

Man can never be free morally, never be free of physical necessity

Hegel

Necessity can be escaped

Human freedom achieved through history
Unlocking freedom is unlocking the mind
resolution of all conflict

Marx

Man cannot escape necessity, can overcome/conquer over time
Value added theory of labour = justification for revolt
Property inherently bad, causes alienation, pushes unnatural necessity on workers, no longer own their own labour, become commoditized

Machiavelli

Morality about the ends, not the means
Justice != the good

Hobbes

Surrender ability to publicly judge morality

Locke

Same as hobbes on Morality, not as many rights
State cant compel morality

Rousseau

Societal progress reduces morality, replaced with virtue
Good/bad -> good/evil
Morality = honesty

Kant

Morality is categorical, good for own sake
Not based on outcomes or human nature
Must be applicable/practical
Agrees with Rousseau-> morality vs happiness, kant chooses

Morality saves philosophy, pure reason can know morals

Pure morality impossible; can never know if achievable, should always still strive for it

Kant

Synthetic a priori judgements, not implied in itself; no previous experience

Practical+moral law

Hegel

Reason != individual mind, its collective

Marx

Political economy leads to greed, an unnatural necessity

Nietzsche

Reason isn't the basis of morality, morality doesn't exist
Way of translating inner views onto external world
Rejects truth as positive
Master vs Slave morality
Masters = strong, powerful
Slaves = weak, submissive, cynical

Machiavelli

Do not trust religion, but a good model for indirect rule

Hobbes

Religion a potential rival

Locke

Everything based off god/nature, supporter of religious toleration

Rousseau

Religion can be used as tool of government, rel. freedom is good

Kant

God is inactive, cannot be proven

Hegel

Old religion subordinates human reason to author
Wants rational christianity

Marx

Religion is the opiate of the masses
Tool of rulers to control workers
Secular society is possible, not fully emancipated

Nietzsche

Religion is attractie because teaches self control, will to power over self
We sacrafice god etc. for our will to power
Religion is good for the herd

Rousseau

Series of accidents force society
Artificial history/hypothetical conception

Kant

History is vindication of moral man, starts with civilized man

Hegel

Progression of history is progression of human understanding, we'll eventually hit the maximum

Marx

Essence of man not intellectual production, but material production

History repeats itself in a class struggle
Communism stops cycle of oppressive governments

Nietzsche

Agrees with idealism of future
No collective progresss, result of aristocrats

Encourages the strong to protect themselves

Machiavelli

Princes v. people, potential princes are the only dangerous people

Hobbes

All born equal in morality, not in natural talents

Locke

All men born equal in rights, autonomy

Rousseau

Society a result of differences, general will requires surrender of all natural gifts and rights

Kant

Concentration of power is good

Hegel

History = Science = Society

Marx

History is class struggles

Nietzsche

Only the strong can be independent, weak are sheep.

Being strong = dangerous, weak cant become strong

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set