process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
signal detection theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
a change in an organism's surroundings that causes the organism to react
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
the signal was absent, but the participant reported sensing it.
correctly stating that no stimulus exists
anything in a survey design that influences responses
just noticeable difference
the smallest difference between two stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the time
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage
the region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes a change in the firing rate of that neuron
Process in which the right brain processes information from the left visual field and vice versa
the registration of sensory input without conscious awareness
tip-of-the tongue phenomenon
experience of knowing that we know something but being unable to access it
specialized cells in the sensory systems of the body that can turn other kinds of energy into action potentials that the nervous system can process
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses
sense of smell
particular pattern of a neural message that a sensory organ sends to the brain
chromatic purity: freedom from dilution with white and hence vividness of hue
The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.
single cell recording
the firing rate and pattern of a single receptor cell can be measured in response to varying sensory input
the perceptual experience of seeing
An object, event, or pattern as it exists in the world. Contrast with proximal stimulus
the optical image on the retina
transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
muscular diaphragm that controls the size of the pupil
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
watery liquid secreted by the ciliary processes that provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
neurons in the retina that are responsible for color vision
the process by which the lens changes shape to focus incoming light so that it falls on the retina.
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
specialized cells which connect rods and cones to the ganglion cells of the optic nerve
The second layer of cells in the eye. - Between the ganglion cells and the bipolar cells.
neurons that connect the bipolar cells in the eyes to the brain
Place where optic nerve fibers cross in the brain
A type of cognitive processing in which only one item is handled at a given time, and one step must be completed before proceeding to the next step.
the processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific characteristics of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement (visual cortex)
BINOCULAR CUE for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
aka "where" or "how" pathway, helps motor system find objects and determine how to find and grab objects, projects to parietal lobe
..., visual paths in the temporal cortex or the "what" pathway because it is specialized for identifying and recognizing objects
YOUNG HELMHOLTZ THEORY; Visual theory that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue
opponent process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes enable color vision
A visual image that persists after a stimulus is removed.
a recessive x-linked disorder in which an individual cannot distinguish between certain colors
People who can distinguish only two of the three basic colors.
People who cannot perceive any color, usually because their retinas lack cones.
Information the brain receives as impulses from the ears, processed by Wernicke's area
part of the outer ear that channels sounds from the outside to the eardrum
The three smallest bones in the human body which amplfy sound vibrations in the middle ear.
OSSICLE, attached to the eardrum aka HAMMER
OSSICLE, transmits sound from the incus to the cochlea, STIRRUP
OSSICLE, passes vibrations from the malleus to the stapes; ANVIL
where the ossicles transmit information to the fluid filled ear
the nerve that carries impulses from the inner ear to the brain, resulting in the perception of sound
the membrane in the ear that vibrates to sound; EARDRUM
the snail-shaped tube where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses by the Organ of Corti
vibrating membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear; it contains sense receptors for sound
located just below the oval window; equalize pressure in the inner ear
organ of corti
organ located in the cochlea; contains receptors (hair cells) that receive vibrations and generate nerve impulses for hearing
Thin hair-like projection from the cell; moves fluid over cell's surface
Georg von Bekesy
Traveling wave theory
hearing cells may alternate their firing to match a sound's frequency (for higher pitches)
in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.
The theory that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates.
partial or complete loss of hearing
loss of hearing due to mechanical damage in the external or middle ear
deafness related to aging, cochlea, hair cells or nerve is damaged
Nasal membranes containing receptor cells sensitive to odors
sense of taste
small rough elevations on tongue and roof of mouth; contain taste buds
sense receptors in the tongue that respond to sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami, and perhaps fat
unit of measurement of the intensity of sound
bitter, salt, sweet, sour
Part of the brainstem that controls vital life-sustaining functions such as heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and digestion.
Pertaining to the skin
respond to touch, pressure, and vibration
nerve fibers that carry messages for dull, aching, and other types of pain
Nerve fibers that conduct fast, sharp, well-localized pain
a neurotransmitter involved in pain perception
Receptor that respond to the body's own naturally produced pain killers (endorphins) as well as narcotics such as heroin and morphine.
neurons that respond to a cooling of the skin by increasing the production of neural impulses
Neurons that respond vigorously when the temperature of the skin increases.
the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance
the structures in the ear that are responsible for your sense of balance
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect
cocktail party effect
ability to attend to only one voice among many
An experimental method that requires people to repeat the attended message out loud.
proposed a filter at the receptor level, however, the notion of a filter at this level has generally been discarded, based on findings showing that meaningful stimuli, such as our own names, can catch out attention. FILTER THEORY
attentional resource theories
explains selective attention by suggesting that we only have a fixed amount of attention
the ability to distribute one's attention and simultaneously engage in two or more activities
how our mind interprets environmental stimuli.
bottom up processing
sensation, analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
BINOCULAR CUE based on the overlay of two retinal fields when both eyes focus on one object
patterns of sensory input that give rise to misperceptions
odorless chemicals that serve as social signals to members of one's species
an organ in the nasal cavity of many animals that contains receptors for pheromones
receptors that sense muscle stretch and contraction (kinesthetic sense0
Golgi tendon organs
receptors that sense movement of the tendons, which connect muscle to bone
gate control theory
The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
perception, info processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
sight, giving meaning to sensations. What you see and how you interpret it.
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
property of the stimulus (sensory input) that leads to a particular perception
depth cues available to either eye alone
depth cues that depend on the use of two eyes
MONOCULAR, whereby larger objects are perceived as closer than smaller ones
MONOCULAR, states that distant objects usually have a much smoother texture than nearby objects.
MONOCULAR, if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer
MONOCULAR, the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
the appearance of a point on the horizon at which parallel lines converge
MONOCULAR, hazy objects are farther away than sharp, clear objects
MONOCULAR, involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates
aka retinal disparity
BINOCULAR, eyes must turn inward slightly to focus on near objects
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts
most perceptual stimuli can be broken down into figure-ground relationships.
GESTALT, objects or events that are near to one another are perceived as belonging together as a unit
GESTALT, the tendency to perceive things that look similar to each other as being part of the same group
GESTALT, balance among the parts of something
GESTALT, we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
GESTALT, tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric
law of Pragnanz
The most general Gestalt principle, which states that the simplest organization, requiring the least cognitive effort, will emerge as the figure.
improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement
the part of a pattern that commands attention. stands out against the ground.
the background against which your focused attention occurs
perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change.
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
if a dot of light is projected onto a screen in a dark room it will appear to move
Images in a series of still pictures presented at a certain speed will appear to be moving
perception that occurs without benefit of the known senses
the alleged power to see things not present to the senses
apparent communication from one mind to another without using sensory perceptions
knowledge of an event before it occurs
the point where the optic nerve enters the retina
sharpness of vision
The process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination.
the process of adjusting the eyes to low levels of illumination
a particular shade of a given color
additive color mixing
The process of mixing lights of different wavelengths to create new hues
subtractive color mixing
Formation of colors by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there.
people who have normal color vision
The number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time.
the unit of frequency
receptor cells location for visual sense
type of energy needed for visual sense
rods and cones
transduction site for visual sense
processing center for visual sense
receptor cell location for auditory sense
type of energy needed for auditory sense
transduction site for auditory sense
processing center for auditory sense
tactile and cutaneous cells
receptor cell location for tactile sense
type of energy needed for tactile sense
transduction site for tactile site
processing center for auditory sense
receptor cell location for olfaction sense
type of energy needed for olfaction sense
olfactor receptor cells
trasduction site for olfaction sense
processing center location for olfaction sense
receptor cell location for gustation sense
type of energy needed for gustation sense
transduction site for gustation sense
processing center for gustation sense
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another
developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment
receptor cells for hearing found in the cochlea
traveling wave theory
most accurate; we hear pitch based on where traveling wave excites the basilar membrane.
a conceptual framework a person uses to make sense of the world
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves
Tendency for vision to dominate other senses
unable to see distant objects clearly
able to see distant objects clearly
ringing in the ears
phantom limb phenomenon
As experienced by amputees, extreme or chronic pain in a limb that is no longer there.
impulses arising from skin, muscle, joints, arteries, and viscera in response to chemical, mechanical, or thermal stimuli
disease of the nerves
pain that is felt at a place in the body different from the injured or diseased part where the pain would be expected
pain for which no physical cause can be identified
the ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts