Procedures III (Final Exam Review)

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Dalton State College Radiologic Technology Program Dalton, GA

The total number of fontanels in an infant

Six - Anterior, Posterior, Right and left sphenoid, Right and left mastoid

The 4 Cranial bones that form the calvaria (skullcap)

Frontal, Left & Right Parietal, Occipital

The 4 Cranial bones that form the floor of the cranium

Right & Left Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid

The cranial bone that articulates with all the other cranial bones

Sphenoid

The landmark that corresponds with the level of the petrous ridge (Todd's Question, double barrel)

TEA

The cranial bone that contains the cribriform plate

Ethmoid

The suture that separates the parietal from the occipital lobe

Lambdoidal

An average shaped skull with a 47 degree angle between the petrous pyramids & the midsagittal plane

Mesocephalic

The term that describes the small flap of cartilage covering the opening to the ear

Tragus

The degree difference between the OML and IOML

7 to 8 degrees

The most critical factor for demonstrating air/fluid levels within the cranium

Horizontal beam

Situation: A radiograph of an AP axial projection of the cranium reveals that the dorsum sellae is projected below the foramen magnum but the anterior arch of C1 is visible within the foramen. Name the Error.

Insufficient flexion of the head and neck

The projections that best visualize the anterior clinoid processess of the sella turcica

AP axia, CR 30 degrees caudal to IOML

Situation: A radiograph of a submentovertex projection of the cranium reveals that the mandibular condyles are projected into the petrous pyramids. What must be fixed?

Increase the extension of the skull

Situation: A radiograph of a PA axial projection (caldwell method) of the cranium reveals that the petrous ridges are located at the level of the lower 1/3 of the orbits. The tech performed this projection with the CR 15 degrees caudal to the OML. How must this be fixed?

None of the above; positioning was correct

Situation: A radiograph of a lateral projection of the cranium reveals that the orbital plates are not superimposed, 1 is slightly superior to the other. What is the error?

Tilt

Situation: A radiograph of a lateral cranium reveals that the mentum was cut off from the bottom of the radiograph. A 10 x 12 IR was used and placed crosswise. What must be fixed for the repeat?

Nothing; Centering & IR placement were correct

Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a routine study of the cranium. He is unable to flex his head & neck sufficiently to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for the AP axial projection. What should the tech do to compensate for this problem without creating excessive magnification of the skull?

Use the IOML & increase CR angle by 7 degrees

Situation: A patient enters the ED with a possible basilar skull fracture. Which skull projection would best demonstrate any blood present in the sphenoid sinus?

Horizontal beam lateral projection

Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a history of a possible erosion of the foramen rotundum. Which projection would best demonstrate this structure?

PA axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML

Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a possible bone cyst within the squamous portion of the frontal bone. Which projection would best demonstrate this region with a minimal amount of distortion of the frontal bone?

AP axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML

Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a study of the sella turcica. Which routine projections would best demonstrate this structure?

AP Axial and Lateral

TRUE or FALSE: The PA Axial projection (HAAS method) fro the cranium requires a CR angle of 25 degrees Caudad

FALSE

TRUE or FALSE: The submentovertex projection requires that the IOML is placed parallel to the IR

TRUE

The skull projection with the highest thyroid dose

Submentovertex

Situation: When using a 30 caudad angle for the AP Axial (Towne) projection of the skull, which positioning line should be perpendicular to the IR?

OML

The cranial bone that is best demonstrated with a PA Axial (HAAS method) projection of the skull

Occipital Bone

The positioning error that is present if the mandible rami are not superimposed on a lateral skull

Tilt

The projection of the cranium that produces an image of the frontal bone with little or no distortion

Caldwell

The aspect of the frontal bone that is thin walled & forms the forehead

Squamous

Thickest and densest structure in the cranium

Petrous Portion

Name the Sutures of the Cranium

Squamosal, Coronal, Lambdoidal & Sagittal

The pterygoid hamulus is a part of this cranium bone

Sphenoid

The perpendicular plate is a part of this cranium bone

Ethmoid

The foramen ovale is a part of this cranium bone

Sphenoid

The cribriform plate is a part of this cranium bone

Ethmoid

The cranial suture formed by the inferior junction of the parietals to the temporal bones

Squamosal

The name of the paired collections of bone found inferior to the cribriform plate that contain numerous air cells & help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

Lateral Labyrinths

Formal term for the left & right sphenoid fontanels in the adult

Left & right pterion

Formal term for the left & right mastoid fontanels in the adult

Left & right asterion

Formal term for the anterior fontanel in the adult

Bregma

Formal term for the posterior fontanel in the adult

Lambda

The small irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult skull sutures

Wormian or Sutural

Bacterial infection of the mastoid process

Mastoiditis

New or adnormal growth

Neoplasia

Benign tumor of the auditory nerve sheath

Acoustic neuroma

Benign, cystlike mass or tumor of the middle ear

Cholesteatoma

Growth arising from a mucous membrane

Polyp

Fracture that may produce an air filled fluid level in the sphenoid sinus

Basal skull fracture

The aspect of the temporal bone that contains the organs of hearing & balance

Petrous portion

The opening between the epitympanic recess & the mastoid portion of the temporal bone

Aditus

The structure that helps equalize atmospheric pressure in the middle ear

Eustachian tube

the structures that appear as scroll-like projections on a radiograph and found in the nasal cavity

Conchae

2 Bones form the bony nasal septum

Ethmoid and Vomer

Posterior aspect of the orbit

Apex

The number of facial bones that help make up the bony orbit

Four:
1. Maxilla
2. Zygoma
3. Lacrimal
4. Palatine

Bone involved with a tripod fracture

Zygomatic

CR centered for a lateral projection of the facial bones

Zygoma, midway between the E.A.M. and the outer canthus

The CR exit point for a modified parietoacanthial (mod. waters) projection of the facial bones

Acanthion

The positioning line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR with a true lateral nasal bone projection

Interpupillary

The sinuses develop last & are not fully developed until the teenage years

Ethmoid

A fracture involving the facial bones where a blow to one side causes a fracture to the opposite side

Contrecoup

The Sinuses are BEST demonstrated with a parieto-acanthial projection

Maxillary only

With the use of erect positions, what other technical factor is important to demonstrate air/fluid levels in para-nasal sinuses

Horizontal x-ray beam

The following projection will BEST demonstrate the bony nasal septum

Parietoacanthial

The C.R. exit point for a modified parieto-acanthial "modified Waters" projection of the facial bones

Acanthion

The CR exit point for a PA Axial Projection of the mandible

Acanthion

The only paranasal NOT contained within a cranial bone

Maxillary

The CR centering point for an AP Axial projection of the mandible

the glabella

The 7 bones that form the bony orbit

Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Frontal, Sphenoid, Palatine, Zygomatic, Maxilla

A fracture that produces a "free floating" zygomatic bone

Tripod Fracture

The 3 foramina found within the bony orbits

Optic foramen, Superior & inferior orbital fissure

Older term for the maxillary sinuses

Antrum

The fracture that results from a direct blow to the orbit leading to a disruption of the inferior orbital margin

Blow-out Fracture

The two basic projections for an injury to the right anterior ribs

PA and LAO

The two specific oblique positions that can be used to elongate the left axillary portion of the ribs

LPO or RAO

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