Bio 101 Ch. 1-4 Exam Review

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The membranous compartmentalization of a cell___

allows different chemical conditions to be maintained in different parts of the cell.

If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that____

is liquid at room temperature.

A hydrogen atom has one electron. How many covalent bonds can hydrogen form?

one covalent bond.

The rough endoplasmic reticulum is considered to be in which general functional category of organelle?

manufacturing

Proteins differ from one another because____

the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein.

The nucleus of a cell____

contains DNA.

The hydrogen atoms of a water molecule are bonded to the oxygen atom by ________ bonds, whereas neighboring water molecules are held together by ________ bonds.

polar covalent . . . hydrogen

The oil and vinegar in your salad dressing remain separate from one another due to the _____ properties of the oil.

hydrophobic

Which of the following contains a carboxyl and an amino group?

amino acids

Which four elements are the primary components of important biological molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates?

nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?

12

Two proteins have the same number and type of amino acids. How is it that they can have different shapes and therefore different functions?

The sequence and arrangement of the amino acids differs between the two proteins.

Humans are members of the _____.

domain Eukarya

Archaea are composed of ________ cells.

prokaryotic

A(n) ________ forms when two atoms share electrons.

covalent bond

Which of the following structures is essential for the successful operation of the endomembrane system?

transport vesicles

When full, the innermost electron shell of argon contains ________ electrons, and the outermost shell contains ________ electrons.

2...8

Peptide bonds____

link amino acids.

Manufacturers make vegetable oils solid or semisolid by _____.

adding hydrogens

Besides water, most of the mass of a typical cell is present in the form of one of these four categories of macromolecules: _____.

proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids

Which of the following is an example of secondary structure in a protein?

an alpha helix

The characteristic that all lipids have in common is that _____.

none of them dissolves in water

Which of the following is an amino group?

―NH2

Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice, especially in adolescents?

Anabolic steroids can prevent bone growth.

The Golgi apparatus_____

stores, modifies, and packages proteins.

Trace elements _____.

are required in very small amounts

Which of the following statements regarding triglyceride molecules is false?

Triglycerides are hydrophilic.

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines

cell theory.

In which kingdom can multicellular photosynthetic organisms be found?

Plantae

What would happen if an ecosystem lacked decomposers?

The ecosystem would stop functioning.

Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?

The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.

Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the domains_____

Bacteria and Archaea.

Which one of the following would be correctly classified as a protein?

enzymes

What is the main sugar used by cells for energy?

glucose

Which of the following lists contains only polysaccharides?

cellulose, starch, and glycogen

Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?

the universality of water as a solvent.

Which of the following are found in prokaryotic cells?

ribosomes (the site of protein synthesis)

Members of the kingdom Animalia

can obtain their food by eating other organisms.

The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell____

contains the cell's DNA.

Water's surface tension and heat storage capacity is accounted for by its______

hydrogen bonds.

Which of the following characteristics of protein will remain intact if the protein is denatured?

the number of amino acids in the protein

Cholesterol belongs to which class of molecules?

lipids

Which of the following statements about radioactive isotopes is true?

The energy emitted by radioactive isotopes can break chemical bonds and cause molecular damage in cells.

An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have?

5

Dehydration reactions _____. They do so by _____.

link monomers to form a polymer ... removing a water molecule

The function of mitochondria is______

cellular respiration.

In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.

reactants . . . products

Secretory proteins are______

released from the cell through the plasma membrane.

A scanning electron microscope is used to study ________, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study ________.

cell surfaces . . . internal cell structures

Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Hydroxyl is to _____ as _____ is to amine.

alcohol ... amino

A buffer_______

donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.

Most of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell is in the _____.

nucleus

Which is the correct term for compounds that do not mix with water?

hydrophobic

Which of these is an example of a population?

all of the red oak trees in a forest

An element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons. Its atomic number and its mass number, respectively, are _____.

8 and 17

The sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, and 12 neutrons. What is the mass number of sodium?

23

DNA differs from RNA because DNA

contains thymine in place of uracil.

A solution with a pH of 7 is

neutral

The function of the nucleolus is

to manufacture ribosomal RNA

Organic compounds

always contain carbon.

Which of the following statements best describes a compound?

A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.

Which of the following hypotheses would be supported if liquid water were found on Mars and contained evidence of bacteria-like organisms?

The chemical evolution of life is possible.

The role of a control in an experiment is to

provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.

Resolution is the

ability of an optical instrument to show two close objects as separate.

A phospholipid is composed of

one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.

Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy from least inclusive to most inclusive?

molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem

There is an uncharged atom of oxygen (atomic number = 8) in the figure below. It has _____.

8 protons and 8 electrons

Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.

chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles

Which of the following statements regarding cells is false?

All cells have a cell wall.

A disaccharide forms when

two monosaccharides join by dehydration synthesis.

Tissues are composed of _____.

cells

The maximum size of a cell is limited by _____.

its need for enough surface area to make exchanges with its environment

Which of the following subatomic particles has appreciable mass and lacks a charge?

neutron

The most common form of calcium has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons. Which of the following elements would be an isotope of calcium?

an atom with 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons
(Isotopes of an atom have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.)

Compared to a solution of pH 3, a solution of pH 1 is

100 times more acidic.

Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?

Fungi

A polysaccharide that we use for storing energy in our muscles and livers is _____.

glycogen

Which of the following particles is found in the nucleus of an atom?

protons and neutrons

Which of the following substances is a lipid?

steroids

The function of chloroplasts is

photosynthesis.

The two domains of life that consist of prokaryotic organisms are _____ and _____.

Archaea ... Bacteria

Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function? The _____ functions in _____.

vacuole ... storage

Which is a typical function of lysosomes?

breaking down of damaged organelles, such as chloroplasts
(rarely found in plant cells)

Two atoms of the same element must have the same number of _____.

protons

A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation

will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.

DNA carries the instructions for building _____, and these instructions are found in informational units called _____.

polypeptides ... genes

The tendency of water molecules to stick together is referred to as

cohesion

Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?

Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.

Which of the following trace elements needed by humans is commonly added to table salt?

iodine

Which of the following are stored in the lysosomes of the cell?

digestive enzymes

Membrane proteins are synthesized by ribosomes that are attached to _____.

the endoplasmic reticulum

Which of the following statements about hydrocarbons is false?

Hydrocarbons are inorganic compounds.

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