← Western Religion Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Talmud main scripture of rabbinic Judaism. It is made up of the Mishnah, which is the oral Torah written down, and the Germara, the additional commentary on the Mishnah. Edited by Stamaim. Passover a holiday that celebrates when the angel of death passed over the Jews in Egypt dictated by the 10th plague. Jews marked doors with lambs blood and their sons were not killed. Theodore Hertzl founder of Zionism. Assimilated jew in Vienna, who after Dreyfus affair began to create movement of jews migrating back to holy land of Palestine Minyan quorum of 10 adult males needed for certain prayers Pharisees Jewish sect in the 1st century during roman rule who believed in an after life, lived according to reason, respected their elders, and extended temple purity to everyday life. exile jews banished from Jerusalem from 586 to 538BCE. They were then exile again by romans in 1st century. shema one of two most important jewish prayers, recited twice daily. Baal Shem Tov founder of Hasidic jews, who were orthodox group that focused on the spiritual meaning of torah, and believed you get closer to god through prayer and good deeds. Torah main scripture of Judaism accumulated into one document. It contains laws and how jews should live, along with holiness legislature. Orthodox Judaism a type of Judaism where a conscious decision was made to go back to tradition Tallit a prayer shawl worn mostly by orthodox Jews. The fringe is a reminder of the commandments and must be cut off before burial. Rashi the most well known and influential commentator on the Torah. 11th C rabbi. Exodus When God sends Moses to convince the Pharoh of Egypt to let enslaved jews go. Moses then leads jews into desert and they wander for 40yrs until they reach Mt. Sinai where Moses is given the torah by god and then people return to Cannin. Bar mitzvah a coming of age ceremony for boys to velebrate the commandments. There is a large celebration and the boy reads parts of the torah. Bat=girls 1885 Pittsburgh Platform congregation of reform rabbis who wanted to clarify the meaning of reform. They affirmed the way in which Judaism is like all other religons, recognized the bible and acknowledged that science was not an attack on Judaism. Yom Kippur 10 days after Rosh Hashanah, Day of atonement where people ask for forgiveness, very solemn day. Mose Mendelssohn german jew with secular edu. A proponent of assimilating into german culture while still abiding to jewish law. Shabbat day of rest. It starts Friday at sundown til Saturday at sundown. You cant drive, work, or listen to music. Candles are lit and prayers said. Tefellin prayer box worn on the head and arm. Popular with orthodox kosher all food comsumed must be killed humanely and be cloven hooved animals that hew cud. Sabbatai Zevi man who claimed to be the messiah. Gained following in Jerusalem, but when he and followers went to turkey, sultan through him in jail with the option of death or conversion. He converted to Islam and lost following. Chanukah/Hanukkah- celebration of the maccabean revolt against the greeks. Greeks destroyed the temple and left oil for only 1 day, yet lasted for 8. Celebrated with lighting of menora. Rabbis don't like it bc it celebrates human victory. Zohar main text of kabbalah mysticism. It is written as a dialogue between a rabbi and disciples in 3rd C to make it accepted, but really written much later. Iconoclast controversy issue over use of icons. Icons or religious symbols painted on wood had been allowed in church, but with the influence of islam who banned them, so did Emperor. Council later allowed them. Incarnation - belief that god takes on human form in person or jesus. Deism religion through observance of reason and nature. Popular during enlightenment period. Gospels 4 Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John and describe jesus in a unique way, trying to get reader to see their point of view. Pope head of catholic church or papacy stationed in rome. Desert ascetics a religious group that believed in the forms of denial to get closer to god. Fast and go into desert to find solitude and focus on reaching god. St. Benedict believed that through practice of habits become ideals and one should follow the abbot without questions. Atonement reconciliation between god and human, necessary due to sin, brought about by death of jesus. Fundalmentalism 20th C reaction against liberal forms of Christianity. Insists on return to fundamentals of faith, literal inurancy of bible, virgin birth vodify ressurection. Martin Luther a german monk in 16th C who took offense with the abuses of the church like selling of indulgences. He believed in faith alone and that one did not need a priest to communicate the scripture. Started luthernan church after excommunicated. Paul a jew that had a vision of jesus, and then made it his mission to start churches and help them out with the teaching of god. historical criticism application of critical method of reading text to bible, arose due to inconsistencies with bible martyrs Christians, many in the roman empire who died for Christianity, looked forward to this bc it was getting closer to god and salvation. jesus healer who after being crucified was resurrected. After death created a following which later become Christianity. julian of Norwich- a woman mystic of catholic church who on her death bed had vision of jesus and miraculously healed, lived as hermit Constantine believed by the people to be sent down from god to rule. Had vision from god to put chiro on shield for battle then won, gaining the w/e empire. Helped set up churches and bought books. Vatican I catholic church response to enlightenment period. It stated that faith and reason are 2 separate realms and reason cannot explain the supernatural powers of god, only faith. Trinity the father, son and holy spirit. What Christianity centers around. Pentecostals those, who after jesus was resurrected were given the ability to preach and speak in tongues. Authorities in church. Contemporary mvt w/in Christianity centered on experience with holy spirit. Takes its name from day of Pentecost as described in bible. Filioque clause western chruchs claim that it is son as well as father which upset E Chruch causing more tention. Sacrament physical act which represents or bestows divine power. Ecumenical council set up by Constantine that made rules for church and acted as a court on making decisions. original sin belief that every person is a sinner and that we must work for salvation and forgiveness from god. Ahadith recordings of what Muhammad did in his life. Some don't believe in them, but many sunnis and shias have them in their homes. Hajj pilgramage to mecca once a yr. every muslim should do it at least once. Hijrah meaning migration. After muhammads uncle died, moved followers from mecca to medina. This symbolizes the beginning of islam and muslim calendar. Imam a religious and political figure. Shia believe should be direct descendant of muhammah. Many believe in praying to imam for intercession bc he is closer to divine. islam religion of muslims, primarily in ME, 2nd largest, believe Allah one and only god. Jihad -"struggle" can be individual struggle to submit to god or a struggle against nonmuslims Kabah a square within a square. Most sacred place, muslims pilgrimage there. Salat prayer, 5x day facing Mecca Shahadah Muslim belief that allah is the one and only god and Muhammad is his messenger. Recite this when convert. Shariah muslim law. Ulama uphold it in court system Sufism kind of mysticism. Believe in music and dance to have an experience with god Sunnah example/practice of Muhammad, seen as normative for muslim community Ulama -religious figures who influence education system and run court system Ummah community. Muslims encouraged to join to be closer to god Zakat 2.5% tax on wealth of people. Not seen as charity but obligation Abu Bakr one of the first followers and first caliph. Conquered the Arabian Penninsula and brought peace and unity to muslim community. Ali (ibn Abi Talib)- last of rightly guided caliphs. During caliphate civil war, supporters did not think strict enough. Killed by one. Hasan al-Banna founder of Muslim brotherhood. Bring back true islam. Abu Hamid Muhammad) Ghazzali studied in Syria, became Sufi mystic to get closer to god. Wrote revival of religious studies. Husain ibn Ali- rose up to fight against Umyyads in order to have direct descendant of Muhammad as caliph. Umayyads killed him. Ashura is day dedicated to him and massacre. Muhammad (ibn Abdallah)- prophet who received revelations from god (Quran) and established Islam. Sayyid Qutn extremist and fundalmentalist who came to US in 40's. saw the sexual promiscuity and corruption so joined muslim brotherhood to rid world of disagreers who were evil. Influenced Bin Laden. Rumi a Sufi mystic and poet. Works popular to this day. Abbasid dynasty seen as the golden age. Economy no longer focused on conquest but trade and commerce. Shariah law formed, Sunnis and Shias split, and Sufi mysticism arose. Safavid Empire primarily in Iran, mostly Shia. Empire focused on returning toways of Muhammad. Growing discontent of twelvers led to downfall and invasion.