Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. (p. 663)
emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
a series of wars between 1948 and 1973 that were fought between Israel and the Arab countries of Iraq, Syria, Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon.
a war that involves the complete mobilization of resources and people, affecting the lives of all citizens in the warring countries, even those remote from the battlefields.
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and minority rule by whites was maintained.
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
The trend toward increased cultural and economic connectedness between people, businesses, and organizations throughout the world.
Osama bin Laden
Arab terrorist who established al-Qaeda (born in 1957). Planned attack of 9-11. Reportedly in Afghanistan
May 4th Movement
On May 4th, 1919, students in Peking protested Japan being given the Shantung province and all around China. It was an intellectual revolution of young, educated people in China, that was also a protest of China's weak government and their reaction to the Treaty of Versailles. This movement allowed the KMT to come back and have power, and it also gave rise to the CCP.
control by a powerful country of its former colonies (or other less developed countries) by economic pressures
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
the freedom of a people to decide under what form of government they wish to live
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He develpoped economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much time on Pan-African efforts, and neglecting his own countries' issues.
(1978-1979) a revolution against the shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader
British document that promised land in Palestine as homeland for Jews in exchange for Jews help in WWI
Soviet statesman whose foreign policy brought an end to the Cold War and whose domestic policy introduced major reforms including many for human rights (born in 1931)
This man became the leader of the Chinese Communist Party and remained its leader until his death. He declared the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and supported the Chinese peasantry throughout his life.
an organization formed in 1906 to protect the interests of India's Muslims, which later proposed that India be divided into separate Muslim and Hindu nations
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China after the Cold War
policy that did not favor either the united states or the soviet union during the cold war
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
A type of colony in which the government is overseen by another nation, as in the Middle Eastern mandates placed under European control after World War I
Great Leap Forward
China's second five-year plan under the leadership of the impatient Mao, it aimed to speen up economic development while simultaneously developing a completely socialitst society. This plan failed and more than 20 million people starved between 1958 and 1960.
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first prime minister. She was also prime minister of India from 1966 to 1977. Against contraceptives, but for abstinence.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countriesan organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum